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28

The United States abandoned the gold standard on 15 August 1971. Since then it has been using fiat money, which is not backed by any commodity. It derives its value solely from government authority. This is sometimes also known as a "managed currency standard".


22

Abe Lincoln did fight a duel in 1842. He was blamed by James Shields for an editorial. He chose extremely large broadswords, to improve his reach. I have heard that he joked at the choice of weapons "How about cow dung at 50 paces?" I personally haven't heard the cannon joke, but he might have used it as well. Since Lincoln was challenged by Shields ...


20

They probably got away with it because it was not illegal to drink alcohol. In fact, the Prohibition outlawed only the "manufacture, sale, or transportation" of alcoholic drinks. No mention of consumption, which remained substantial (~50-80% of "normal"), was made in the Prohibition amendment. After one year from the ratification of this article the ...


10

Basically it was an unenforceable law, and much of law enforcement saw no need to bother trying. There are several factors you have to consider here: Prohibition was never really that popular. In fact, its likely that a majority of the country was against it when it passed. Prohibition was particularly unpopular in large cities. The above factors meant ...


8

Hitler's expectation, which was initially correct, was that the United States would not enter the war. In fact, he didn't even think Britain would declare war on Germany. When it did, he reportedly was deeply shocked. The main "plan", if you can call it that, was what was called "fortress Europe". The idea that once united, the nations of Europe would be ...


8

No, Hitler had no plan for defeating the US outright. However, the Germans had been fighting against the US for quite some time in the Battle of the Atlantic, since US escorts would take convoys partway across and defend them against U-Boats. So the US neutrality was very strained already. And when the US entered the war, the Germans at once sent U-Boats ...


8

The American dollar is now Fiat Money, unbacked by any physical asset


6

From the US Census, 1920 was the first census where more than half the population was considered Urban rather than Rural. This might be considered a rough answer to your question. Source


6

Religion as a motivation for Armstrong's solo visit is very unlikely. Armstrong was actually the 2nd U.S. Astronaut that travelled to the Soviet Union - the first was Frank Borman, who arrived in Moscow on July 2nd, 1969 after being invited by the U.S.S.R. Institute for Soviet-American Relations.1 Borman was among the more religious of the Apollo ...


6

I would say that the predominant roots of southern fried chicken was Scotch-Irish, with the "West African" part added later, almost as an afterthought. The basic idea for "southern" fried chicken is "breaded" chicken, deep-fried in flour and/or corn meal. That part is Scots Irish. One "related" example is "shortening bread" of Riley. That is bread made of ...


5

Before making statements about the US Constitution, I suggest reading it. The original Constitution said nothing about who does or who does not have the right to vote. Voting standards during the colonial and immediate post-colonial period were the same as those in Britain, which operated on a simple principle: whoever paid taxes was entitled to a single ...


5

The answer is in the meat-packing industry and the development of a practical refrigerated boxcar, also known as the reefer. This permitted livestock ranched in the West to be slaughtered nearer the cattle ranges, and shipped back east with little spoilage - before, livestock were shipped live to local slaughter-houses in the East, who distributed the meat ...


5

From IPUMS (click on "case count" here) we have the number of farm and nonfarm households in the United States from 1850 onwards (note comparability problems after 1950). In their 1% sample of the 1850 census, more than half of households are non-farm. However, the groups are close to equal size, so we can expect the equal split (in households) to have taken ...


4

A high demand for alcohol provided an economic incentive to those willing to break or circumvent the laws. The only problem was somehow breaking or circumventing the laws. The wikipedia article on alcohol during and after prohibition cites portable stills as going on sale within a week after prohibition went into effect and California grape growers as ...


4

There is two questions here, since "political elite" did not (and does not) equate to membership in congress. In terms of the physical overlap of the two Congresses, let's examine the composition of the First United States Congress. In the Senate, only four senators out of 25 (+3 replacements), or 16% (14.3% counting replacements) had not previously served ...


3

This answer contains some conjecture. Perhaps somebody else will be able to provide better information. The first piece of evidence comes from the Flag Institute (The UK’s National Flag Charity). It provides a guide to Flying Flags in the United Kingdom. On page 6, under the heading As a Pall for a Coffin it says If the flag is to be retained by the ...


2

In theory, yes that would cover any religion. In practice, not just no but hell no. Indian cultures, of which their religious beliefs were an integral part, were considered uncivilized and inferior. In the logic of time, this naturally meant the Indian "way of life" was an active harm to the Indians, as well as a standing threat to their neighbors. As such ...


2

To comply the comments I rewrote: While this is not a direct demographic data, GDP by industry can be a good indicator where the jobs are. Agriculture is primarily farms based, industry, service is primarily urban. It may not give an exact 50% point, but gives an idea. Also, the reason behind the demographic change is the shift of economy and majority of ...


2

You are conflating immigrants from different time periods. The North American colonies were established over a period of 150 years from approximately 1620 to 1770. During that time many different kinds of immigration occurred. First of all, criminals were not allowed to immigrate normally. You had to be of good character to get sponsored to go to the ...


2

There were some plans like the Amerika Bomber (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amerika_Bomber) that also could be used to deliver an atomic bomb. There was also plans to launch bombers from the Azores. There were also plans for V2 rockets launched from U-boats.


2

Hitler's best chance was to conquer the "rest of the world" outside of the Americas, which he and Japan had the power to do, absent vigorous American intervention. The plan would be to conquer what I call the Euro-As-Af land mass. Put another way, Hitler had to deprive America of a "critical mass" of world power. In both my unpublished book, Axis ...


2

I not only found this book: The Floating Boathouses on the Upper Mississippi River: Their History, Their Stories but managed to meet the author who has a boathouse in Brownsville, MN when I floated through on my research journey.


1

To complement Mark's answer, from the Marxist perspective where "prosperity" could only be viewed as the maximisation of value under bourgeois control. I was reading an abstract today on the commodity form's [use in human communities, resulting in reflected legal and political ideology as people consider their practice in the light of commodity society, and ...



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