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3

There are isolated instances of flag desecration in America's colonial and revolutionary past, but the perpetrators were not especially influential. From Robert Goldstein's "The Great 1989-1990 Flag Flap: An Historical, Political, and Legal Analysis", published in the University of Miami's Law Review, p. 37: Although a scattering of flag desecration ...


1

Probably not. It's impossible to prove a negative like this, so this answer is necessarily inferential. Let's start by looking at Franklin's letter: Benjamin Franklin to John Bartram London, Jan. 11, 1770. My ever dear Friend: I received your kind letter of Nov. 29, with the parcel of seeds, for which I am greatly obliged to you. I cannot ...


8

The earliest I could find was by a John R. Norris in 1957 for a radio earpiece: There are a lot of behind-the-ear headphone/microphone combos, but that's not quite what you're asking about. The first dedicated behind-the-ear headphone I found was Simeon Schreiber's 1988 "Bone Conduction Audio Listening Device and Method": But importantly, the first patent ...


4

What the current Wikipedia entry says on this is accurate and succinct: In the United States religious activities of cults are protected under the First Amendment, however cult members are not granted any special protection against criminal charges. In other words, no law is allowed in the USA that abridges anyone's right to join a religion of their ...


4

Note that the first Congressional nominating caucus was in 1796, and was only to select a VP nominee. Thus the "King Caucus" system really only operated for POTUS candidates for 6 election cycles (1800-1820). In the USA, the presidential election is essentially a set of separate elections where every state simultaneously votes for its state's choice of ...


4

. . . . The election of 1824 brought an end to both the Democratic-Republican-dominated “era of good feeling” and the use of a congressional caucus as a nominating device. Although the Democratic- Republican caucus nominated William Crawford of Georgia as its candidate, three other candidates (John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson) ...


2

It is difficult to make exact estimates because reliable figures from different publishers making the same book are hard to come by, especially in the case of pirated editions, which were rampant at that time. The popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin has been somewhat exaggerated and there were many publications that compare to it. For example, if you include ...


3

My answer is that there was no such umbrella term in common use in the 1800s that corresponds directly to our "Hispanic" or "Latino" category. I think T.E.D.’s answer is correct in that people with Mexican origins were called Mexicans. And if you lived in an area where most people who have Spanish names were of Mexican descent, then residents may have ...


3

Prohibition ended just before scientific polling took off in the U.S., so we don't have high-quality polls from the 1920s. What we do have are polls of specific magazines' readers. Now, keep in mind that bias enters these numbers twice: magazine readership is not representative of the population, nor are those who respond to magazine polls representative of ...


6

Historians like Dunning and Phillip are writing half a century before the cliometric revolution in economic history, which has completely changed how we view this question. Fogel and Engerman's 1974 "Time on the Cross" was quite influential in showing how profitable slavery was for those who practiced it. In particular, plantations were more efficient ...


6

Yes, Puritans supported a state church. Participation in political life was dependent on one's religious background, as voting rights were restricted to members of the church. Note that "church membership" is even stricter than being a Puritan: one had to be a member of the "elect" who could testify to their personal experience of God. Furthermore, ...


6

The founders of the Pennsylvania colony (and Massachusetts, Virginia and Kentucky for that matter) were inspired by the writings of English philosophers like John Locke and Thomas Hobbes; and so emphasised that their colony's authority derived from the people by formally calling themselves a Commonwealth. This wasn't necessarily different from other states ...


10

The short answer is: None at all. According to the "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl" by Harriet Jacobs: Female Slaves and the Law Southern rape laws embodied race-based double standards. In the antebellum period, black men accused of rape were punished with death. White men could rape or sexually abuse female slaves without fear of ...


3

MAJ is the sweet spot by design. Officers either reach 20 years and a pension of about one third their pay or they bail at about 12 years service and pursue safer, better opportunities for self/family. Children are generally old enough to need stability when officers hit MAJ. Staying past MAJ for most officers effectively commits them to 20+ years service. ...


5

In theory, yes that would cover any religion. In practice, not just no but hell no. Indian cultures, of which their religious beliefs were an integral part, were considered uncivilized and inferior. In the logic of time, this naturally meant the Indian "way of life" was an active harm to the Indians, as well as a standing threat to their neighbors. As such ...


0

The ONLY legal consequence of the establishment clause is that the federal government can't force people to adopt a specific religion. Nothing more, nothing less. Of course over time it's been corrupted to where many think it means the government is not allowed to allow any religion, to not allow any of its employees to be openly religious, but this is ...



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