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A key identifier (before personal IDs) was the character witness and guarantor -- someone who knew you and vouched for you. It could be done in person, or documented in an affidavit. Many documents, even today, include witnesses, attesting not only that a particular event took place (marriage, death, official acts like wills, etc), but that the parties were ...


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The United States has traditionally been a free country, not requiring people to carry identifying documents. Even today, there are only some states that have stop and identify statutes requiring people to identify themselves when stopped on "suspicion" or for other non-criminal reasons. Even those states mostly require a person only give their name, not ...


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One elector went for Ronald Reagan in 1976--the first time he ran, not when he won the race.: from Wikipedia on the 1976 Electoral College results: Washington Elector Mike Padden, pledged for Republicans Gerald Ford and Bob Dole, cast his presidential electoral vote for Ronald Reagan, who had challenged Ford for the Republican nomination. He cast ...


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Note, in the interest of academic honesty and historical accuracy, I will preface my answer by acknowledging that it constitutes original research and is purely anecdotal, though I believe it is worth sharing because of its relevance to the question: I can't produce any writings for you, per your question, just a firsthand account: According to my ...


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I really doubt this is more than an urban legend for a few reasons: Bomber Command. The RAF had an explicit night-time area bombing strategy, targeting Dusseldorf multiple times (for example in September 1942 and July 1943). Unless the Old Town was very lucky it would have been flattened. Precision Bombing Isn't. In contrast to the RAF, the USAAF had a ...


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Traditionally most municipalities in the USA select their jury pool based on their state's voter rolls. That is in fact how Alabama does it today. This is probably chiefly for convenience sake. A state's voter registrations is about the only convenient database of "of age" residents and where they live that the state (and everyone in it) has access to. ...


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Your statement is incorrect on two counts. First of all, it is not true that the "absence" from the pool denies due process. Secondly, the violation is not of the Due Process clause of the Constitution, it was held to be a violation of the 14th Ammendment. The violation itself occurs when potential jurors are deliberately excluded from the pool. If by chance ...


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A more general answer can be given. Transatlantic flights of airships were rare events. No comparison with modern airplane fights, and with regular ships crossings at that time. So it is not surprising that they had attention of the media. And they were available mostly to the "rich and famous", and these people always have attention of the media whatever ...


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There is no special significance to the choice of engravings other than the artistic sense of the sculptor, Charles Keck. Pegasus is the symbol of apotheosis. The martyr-like death of Long may have inspired the choice of symbology. Also, note that a giant Pegasus was installed on top of the Magnolia Building in Dallas in 1934 (the headquarters of Mobile Oil) ...


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All of the activities of the airship were considered interesting by the newspapers. The New York Times had 5 or 6 articles on the Hindenburg in April alone. The Hindenburg was by far the fastest way for a passenger to cross the Atlantic at the time, taking only about 70 hours (3 days) compared to regular ships which took about a week, twice as long. It's ...


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Almost nobody thought the Earth was flat by the 19th century. Even as early as Columbus, the argument was not that the Earth was round, but that it was small enough to go to India from Spain (it wasn't). The ancient Greek mathematician Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth with relatively good accuracy i.e. not flat. Columbus used ...


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The Pegasus is not a creature to be invoked without intent for its mythological significance to be added to whatever symbol it is on. The Pegasus, on a general level without getting into specific myths, is a steed for heroes- a gift from the gods to help noble men do right. In this use of Pegasus, the horse is wrapped around the banner "share our wealth," an ...


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First I will acknowledge it is difficult to write on this topic neutrally, even 150 years later, as the scar of the Civil War still runs through the country. I'll do my best to remain factual. Did the Southern States make any attempt to secede from the Union, prior to 1861, through an act of Congress? I cannot find any record of a serious attempt, no. ...


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There's three questions here. Was Japan a threat? If not, could it be a threat again? Would Japan surrender without the atomic bomb or invasion? These are aspects of the larger question, "was the atomic bomb and invasion necessary"? That's a big question with lots of moving parts that's still debated by professional historians, so it's good to reduce ...


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I think the possible answer could fall into how to tread the OP's word "capable of maintaining the war".... Thus I would like to analyze between the "material capability side" and the "spiritual capability side". Material Capability Side From this source Data comparison ( From 1941 to 1945 ) The number of soldiers ( including civilian related ...


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The uranium-based gun design was the fundamental approach of the project from the beginning. The "fat man" design used plutonium-239, a substance much easier to produce than uranium-235, but requiring a much more complicated implosion type warhead. It was not clear until 1944 that the implosion design would even work. John von Neumann essentially invented ...


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Japan was not really capable of "maintaining war" by mid-1945. The problem was that it was unwilling to "make peace" on anything like reasonable terms. If the Allies had wanted a stop to the fighting, one possibility might have been a "cease fire in place." That would leave the Allies in possession of the Philippines, and Iwo Jima and Okinawa, but it would ...


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I think you are formulating the debate in the wrong terms. There were Japanese who correctly believed that the war was lost, nukes or no nukes. There also were Japanese, who believed that an honorable settlement was still possible, through some far fetched pipe dream scheme like Soviet mediation or Kamikaze pilot wild successes. Nukes gave the former a ...


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The answer to this question is yes, Japan was capable of maintaining the war at the time and likely would have done so. However, Japan was incapable of conducting meaningful offensive operations by then. So, in a sense they couldn't have hurt the U.S. but they would have hurt many others. U.S. General Curtis LeMay was responsible for implementing the ...


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To simply say that they wanted to try out different types is to miss the point that weapons-grade uranium and plutonium have fundamentally different production methods and lend themselves to very different weapon designs. Uranium bombs require a very high percentage of the isotope U-235, which is only present in miniscule quantities in natural uranium. ...


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No. Japan had almost no capability to continue waging war. In fact, strangled by the American blockade, Japan was tottering on the brink of collapse. Experts both then and since believed that the combined pressure of the Soviet entry, the relentless blockade (and usually, the conventional aerial bombardment campaign) would have compelled Japan to surrender. ...


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Wikipedia answers this rather well. Basically, a plutonium bomb is more complicated than a uranium bomb. However, weapon-grade plutonium is also easier to obtain than weapon-grade uranium, since the plutonium can be separated chemically from burnt nuclear reactor fuel, whereas uranium needs to be enriched in a costly process. In fact, all of the enriched ...


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Nuclear bomb making was a new endeavor and it was not clear which approach would be successful - cheaper, faster, more powerful, smaller, more reliable &c &c. They really had to try all feasible approaches before settling on one.


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You can never be sure that a naval blockade will indeed lead to a national collapse. E.g., Britain did not surrender. Why do you think Japan would have? You must also remember the international situation: what if the SU would land in Japan and occupy it? By mid-1945 is was already a fact that, despite numerous agreements and promises of free elections, SU ...


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Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution states: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; Article 1, Section 9 states: No Tax or Duty ...


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I would guess that this fellow was stationed at the American consulate general (that is what AM CON GEN stands for) in Calcutta between 1961 and 1962. So to answer your precise question: Probably not much.


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Midway was a distraction at a critical moment in the battle, but this more due to luck than anything else. If you replay the Battle Of Midway over again, it is unlikely it would have turned out that way again. Despite the US advantage of surprise and Japanese overconfidence, so much of the battle was down to luck. Midway made three important (I won't say ...


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The direct military effect of the land based bombers was zero, as they did not inflict a single hit on the Japanese fleet in their multiple sorties. Level bombing was very ineffective during the entire war in hitting Japanese ships in motion, and none of the planes on Midway were trained in the dive-bombing attacks that would prove crucial. The distraction ...


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The main reason was that North have four times more white men than South (plus, almost 200 African-american soldiers served in northern army). With rate of volunteers about 50% (theoretical figure), northern army would be four times bigger than southern. So it is why South eventually needed 100% conscription, after the first year of war, to get Southern ...


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No, they did not. If they did, most likely they could get peaceful separation (considering that Corwin Amendment passed Congress even without votes of seven seceding states). Instead, they recalled representatives from Congress, and demanded recognition from presidents (Buchanan and Lincoln), who did not have constitutional power to change state legal ...


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An under-appreciated reason for the collapse of the Federalists is that they were, essentially, a neo-mercantalist party. Hamilton and others were pro-industrialization not so much because they wanted to see individuals get rich through manufacturing, but because industrialization made the United States a more powerful nation in the international system ...


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As ihtkwot♦ wrote: In fact the Allies borrowed $2.5 billion from the Americans, whereas the Germans only borrowed $45 million. "World War" I was largely a war between France and Germany. The problem was, that France couldn't really afford the war with Germany (remember, they lost the war in 1870), so they heavily borrowed from the US, as did Britain. ...


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It is important to remember that much of the routine work in every military unit is deliberate, and quite sensible, make-work. This is necessary to provide both the training and the command and control redundancy required to cover casualties once combat starts in earnest. Military forces that neglect this, such as the Austro-Hungarian Infantry in 1866, ...


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In 1815, Jefferson offered to sell his massive library of over 6,400 books to the U.S. Government to replace those books burned in 1814 by the invading British. The Government paid him over $23,000 for his library. That amounted to almost $400,000 in today's money, i.e., after the Revolution, Washington had to sell a large parcel of his land for $50,000 ...


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According to James David Hart in The Popular Book: A History of America's Literary Taste: Sylvanus Cobb Jr. “was the most consistently read of all the period’s novelists and his Gunmakers of Moscow probably had an American public second only to that of Uncle Tom’s Cabin (99) Cobb's books were action-packed pulp, and he was disdained by the educated ...


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Its common to see union histories begun in the late 19th century, but the institutional precursors for labor unions--even unions that organize workers regardless of trade or craft--goes back to the founding of the country. The earliest I know of is the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesman, founded as a mutual aid society for skilled workers in New ...


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Both parties were pro-business for most of the 19th century. As one example, in 1894 Democratic President Grover Cleveland sent in Federal troops to break up the Pullman Strike. The question, then, is is when did Republicans become the sole beneficiaries of business support? The turning point was 1896, when the Democrats nominated the populist William ...


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During the 1960s, non-violent protest was more effective than violent protest at bringing about desegregation in southern cities--especially where black protest groups had some economic leverage over the local community. We know this thanks to a recent quantitative study, which found that cities with sit-in protests were much more likely to desegregate ...


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This is probably a very debatable question, but I think I can make the argument, with good historical backing, that it was the non-violent protests that were most effective in what progress was made in the Civil Rights movement. Firstly I make this argument in deference to the leaders on the ground. A reading of Freedom Summer, by Bruce Watson* shows that ...


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King made frequent reference to the book of Exodus in order to draw parallels between the ancient Israelites (enslaved in Egypt) and African-Americans (not enslaved anymore, but still not granted the full set of rights that come with being truly free). You can read entire essays on King's rhetorical use of Exodus. King used the exact phrase Egypt-land at ...


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The USA was not a global or even regional power during the time the Haitian Revolution took place. Another factor to take into account is that things simply got out of control in Haiti. France had the most powerful army of Europe and possibly the world and they lost to revolting slaves. Even though most of the French soldiers died from mosquito-borne ...



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