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8

Slave Armies... Yes they did happen. These armies mostly occurred in the Middle East in Ancient History with rulers and sultans. It started in the 7th Century but really came to affect in the 9th century during the second Muslim Dynasty, The Abbasids. These Muslim Rulers in the Middle East relied on slaves to join their army because they decided that these ...


6

as all battles in the period were decided by one side giving way and giving up the fight by running or fleeing, the men were not robots and morale was a very important factor and it soldiers failing to be steady and press forward or whole ground was a regular occurrence casualties in battle were often not particularly huge, the volleys often rapidly ...


5

By the tone of your question, you're seeing WWII as a crusade against evil where there can be no neutrals, and in hindsight I agree. The laws of war didn't use these categories at the time. Being neutral can mean trading with both sizes equally, or with neiter one. If one of the belligerents is closer and trades more, that happens. The US transported lend-...


4

"Sweden emerged physically unscathed from World War II." That was the whole point of its neutrality. Other Scandinavian countries suffered more because they were "involved." In Sweden's case, there was no fighting, no occupation, nothing related to war, hence "unscathed." How did Sweden emerge morally unscathed? First, even Germany and Japan were forgiven ...


4

It's probably alcohol, with tobacco (nicotine) and caffeine at distant second and third. These drugs don't directly enhance performance, but are great at maintaining morale. In the case of alcohol, although it impairs performance and is easily abused, can also increase courage - see the term Dutch Courage. Many historical militaries also practiced a "last ...


3

Yes. http://www.pbs.org/pov/afghanistanyear1380/the-horror-of-landmines/ In northern Iraq, during the Persian Gulf War, for instance, we observed six casualties from the explosion of a Valmara-69. The two persons who were trying to defuse the mine to recover its aluminum content — worth about $1 on on the local market — were immediately killed. At the ...


3

When triggered, a bounding mine propels itself into the air, then explodes, spraying shrapnel over a large area. To maximize the effectiveness, the shrapnel pattern is largely horizontal (shrapnel thrown upwards into the air or blown into the ground at the base of the mine is wasted). This means that, in general, the best way to survive a bounding mine is ...


2

He didn't, and didn't plan to. The minefield at the entrance to Mobile Bay was well-known and clearly marked. Its purpose wasn't to sink attacking ships, but to force them close to the guns of Fort Morgan, where they could easily be sunk by artillery fire. Farragut's initial plan for the battle was for two columns of ships to enter the bay through the ...


2

A famous example is the Spartan army whose large portion consisted of helots.


1

In typical European armies, troops were trained on a conscription basis. The training is a mix of the general background of the soldiers and what was expected of them in a battle. However, there were also volunteer armies and large-scale mercenaries, but mostly we're talking conscription. In a European conscription army, men would be called or pressed ...


1

The natural drug epinephrine (adrenaline).


1

There's an underlying question of "why would a commander choose to charge through a minefield?" The main purpose of a minefield is not to stop an attack, but to slow it down and restrict the attacker's movement while they carefully pick their way through it. A good minefield is placed in restricted terrain with clear fields of fire from the defenders, ...



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