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Recorded in Plutarch's De garrulitate, this is an example of a Laconic phrase: After invading Greece and receiving the submission of other key city-states, Philip II of Macedon sent a message to Sparta: "If I invade Laconia you will be destroyed, never to rise again." The Spartan ephors replied with a single word: "If" (αἴκα). Subsequently ...


4

The answer is absolutely zero. The Belgae people of 50 BC and the Belgians of today are in all likelihood completely genetically different - the area was resettled by Romans, as you say, but also suffered (and most likely bred with) various different Germans, Goths, Huns, Magyars and finally Vikings before we reach somewhere resembling today's modern ...


3

The Maronites were themselves divided and some elite families engaged in Mafia style gang-wars to control valuable smuggling routes. Suleiman Frangieh- a notorious Maronite war-lord, Gang Boss, but also a President of Lebanon, had become close friends with the Assads (who took control of Syria). He invited the Syrians in to Lebanon. His son was killed by ...


3

I will try to answer your "original" question in a roundabout way by stating that the period after the Napoleonic wars was "healthier" for France in diplomatic terms. This was true even though France lost back essentially all the territory she gained after the French Revolution. From at least the time of Louis XIV (if not XIII) until the time of Napoleon, ...


3

For the most part, France lost all of her Napoleanic territorial gains at the end. By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, concluded after the Hundred Days, France was reduced to her pre-revolution 1790 borders, with the exception of a couple of tiny enclaves surrounded by French territory that they were still allowed to keep. They had been allowed to keep a ...


2

Syria is controlled by Alawites who follow a specialized, somewhat secretive religion. This religion is often described as "shiite muslim," but that is a gross oversimplification. The Alawites have friendly, although sometimes uneasy, association with not only the Maronites, but with other Christian and non-Christian minorities including the Druse and ...


2

In the above answers I haven't seen the warring states period of China. It was like the real life version of the game Risk with seven (major) players for over 2 centuries till one of them conquered all the others at the end.



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