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83

Yes, a trained archer can probably put more effective shots on an unarmored target than a trained musketman of the 18th century. The problem is that word trained. Consider that most nations in the 18th century did not have a standing army. Men were called up, served their time, and left. That means you either need to use skills they already have (in WWII ...


21

They identify the size of the formation. That Free French unit you referred to with one X is actually a brigade, not a division. Similarly, the Greek and German unit facing each other German unit both have a single X, and has been explicitly labelled as brigades. All other units, including the Italian one you mentioned, have XX - indicating they are ...


19

During the First World War, King Albert I of Belgium assumed personal command of the Belgian Armed Forces. He wasn't just visiting the front - he went into the fields with his troops and commanded them in the fighting, including at the pivotal Battle of the Yser. I don't know if this counts as "taking part in military actions" - it kind of depends on ...


18

PTSD, or stress reactions from battle, were well known during the Greek and Roman era. The Greeks understood it very well. Alexander the Great's men are said to have mutinied after suffering "battle fatigue." These examples of Roman era PTSD are taken from a blog of ancient examples sourced from Max Hastings', An Oxford Book of Military Anecdotes: ...


16

Origins of Pan-Slavism Speaking as a (western) Slav, panslavism was indeed a big topic in 19th century politics. The primary reason for this seems to have been that outside of Russia, most Slavic populations were not in fact in their own nation states, but rather were subjugated by other national groups. This included, for instance, Czechs under Austrian ...


11

King Haakon VII of Norway was present in active combat zones during the German invasion of Norway in 1940. King Michael I of Romania was head of state and the official military commander in chief of Romania from 1940 to 1944, although he did not direct the fighting. In 1944 he staged an armed coup, ousting military dictator Ion Antonescu. If you consider ...


10

The sources I've found to support Peteris' point is Joshua S. Goldstein's War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Here's a quote, taken from Google Books: By some reports, "war aphrodisia" — common among soldiers in many wars — extended into many segments of society during "total war." Thus, among not only soldiers ...


10

One often missed factor is that arrows are delicate and require skilled fletchers to make them. The English invasion of France under Edward IV in 1475 required two years lead time producing enough arrows to supply his troops on campaign. Also the logistics of transporting arrows is problematic. A sheaf of 24 arrows takes up considerably more space than a ...


10

Yes. Off the top of my head, jauhar is reminiscent of the Siege of Masada. Looking at the wikipedia entry for jauhar (which you linked), I see also a reference to Balinese puputan. Finally, here is a list of historical mass suicides, a number of which fit the jauhar pattern (women of a defeated group suiciding to avoid capture or slavery). In some cases, men ...


10

It may be the German V-3, with a maximum range of 165 km. It was destroyed before it could be fired, although several experimental models were used in Luxembourg in 1944-1945. After the war, a U.S.-Canadian group revived the V-3, hoping to use it as a cheap weay to launch objects into space. According to this military history site: Using a testing ...


9

The City of Xi'an / Hsi-an aka Ch'ang-an aka Hao - 51 (58) times 771 B.C. - conquered by the Quanrong barbarians 771 B.C. - recovered by Qin forces 207 B.C. - captured by Liu Bang's army A.D. 23 - captured by the Green Forests Army rebels 25 - captured by the Red Eyebrows Army rebels 26 - recovered by Deng Yu 192 - captured by Li Jue and Guo Si 198 - ...


8

I seriously doubt that Maj. Erwin König, or any "German supersniper sent out to get Zaytsev" existed, let alone an effort to "remove him from history" after Zaytsev killed him. Since there cannot be proof of non-existence, you'll have to take personal reasoning: 1) Propaganda. If there had been such a "super-sniper", he'd have had his appearance in the ...


8

A very raw comparison of the fleet strengths of the major players during the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic Wars is given below. In these tables a Ship of the Line is any vessel that would be considered to sit in the line of battle, generally these had their guns on 2 or 3 decks and had 50 or more cannon. Cruisers are smaller sea-going warships, ...


8

The Gantt chart was originally a paper based project planning method. The Google article says The first known tool of this type was developed in 1896 by Karol Adamiecki ... . The chart is named after Henry Gantt (1861–1919), who designed his chart around the years 1910–1915. It continues One of the first major applications of Gantt charts was by ...


7

Addressing the link you cited, Tokugawa Ieyasu taking no part in fighting is not the same as opposing the war in general. In fact, Ieyasu was the one who proposed the invasion strategy that Hideyoshi adopted. When combat operations began, Tokugawa troops were part of the reserves who stayed in Kyushu. But, as you said, whether or not Ieyasu actually opposed ...


7

There have already been some good explanations, regarding relative ease of use for muskets, as well as less training required to use, but I have not seen two constants of campaigning considered: Rain and Disease. Gunpowder and bowstrings both need to be kept dry. On a bow this was possible by unstringing it, and tucking the string somewhere relatively dry. ...


7

There's a lot of very good answers already; but I'd like to add on to what @Schwern has said from a Japanese perspective. When the musket was introduced in Japan in the 16th century, it quickly overtook archery in terms of importance. This is despite the fact that archery remained (and remains) a culturally important and valued skill among the samurai. ...


7

An almost categorical no, but I stick with a hardly. As Rajib pointed the war as a complex system, and one single variable not decide the entire destiny, and note the entire British contribution to defeat Germany was not that big. The Red Army [...] defeated 75%–80% of the German land forces (Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS) deployed in the war. Wikipedia So, ...


6

Among some of the more notable officers were: Lieutenant Colonel Mukaiyama, reportedly a staff officer in the 38th Army who became a technical advisor to the Vietnamese; killed in combat in 1946. Credited by some as the leader of Japanese forces in Vietnam, and sometimes ranked as a full colonel. Major Ishii Takuo, a staff officer in the 55th Division who ...


6

The Tripartite Struggle for Kannauj , is a very good example. There were 3 sides, The Pala rulers from Bengal, the Gurjara Pratihara of Rajasthan and West, and The Rashtrakuta, from South Or Deccan. The war continued for more than 3 generations on each side. Finally, The Pratihara rulers emerged victorious. This was an important era in history of India. ...


6

Buddhism predates Christianity and some believe some of the ideas of Buddhism traveled along the Silk Road and reached the Middle East. They may have influenced thought in that area in the years before the appearance of Christianity. Buddhism, although some would argue it’s not a religion, does promote peaceful co-existence. The five precepts are: To ...


6

It really depends on what you mean by "supposed to be practically in charge". Supposed by whom ? If the war rages on and the leader does not even know, then one can confidently say that the leader does not hold the actual power, which is instead in the hands of people who perfectly know that the leader is not actually leading. One situation which is similar ...


6

The Wikipedia article is quite extensive, but the salient points are these: The British army and militia were under-strength in 1940 but with exceptionally short supplies lines and tank production matching then eventually exceeding German production. The British were perfectly willing to gas any invaders and had stockpiles prepared in advance (the British ...


6

Does this count (North Yemen)? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_al-Badr


6

I think, the question is simply too broad for a definitive answer. What is a "reigning monarch" and what defines a "battle"? A friend of mine has been working as an MD at a missionary hospital in Papua New-Guinea. There are still wars between tribes and they have chieftains. Does a chieftain count as "reigning monarch" and do those conflicts count as ...


6

If you don't care if they were actually used in combat, then the German V-3 cannons would certainly seem to be in with a shot (pardon the pun), with a projected range of 165km. If you're including land-based guns that fired straight up, then Project Harp had a 'range' of 180km.


6

Common knowledge: The One Time Pad is in theory unbreakable (and in practice if properly managed - I'm looking at you Soviet Union). This is a Poly-alphabetic substitution cipher with a random key (in effect infinity long).


6

It's most likely illness. Takeda Shingen's death has been reported as pulmonary tuberculosis in the Buke Jiki, 武家事紀, and as throat or stomach cancer in the Kōyō Gunkan 甲陽軍鑑. There's a theory that he was killed by a bullet or bullet wound, but this is generally regarded as a popular myth. It is only found in pro-Tokugawa writings (i.e. propaganda) produced ...


5

Yes. Wikipedia maintains a list of "Wars and Anthropogenic Disasters by Death Toll." Here are the 19th century entries, with lower and upper estimates for death toll. Taiping Rebellion (20-100 million) Napoleonic Wars (3.5-7 million) Shaka's Conquests (1.5-2 million) Du Wenxiu Rebellion (0.8-1 million) American Civil War (0.67-0.85 million) Circassian ...


5

Yes, there may be "soldiers" considered neutral - even if they are members of armed forces, provided that their sole duty was medical aid for the wounded ("ambulances"). The seminal document is the "initial" Geneva Convention 1864 ("Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field"), initiated by Henry Dunant, after the ...



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