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77

Yes, a trained archer can probably put more effective shots on an unarmored target than a trained musketman of the 18th century. The problem is that word trained. Consider that most nations in the 18th century did not have a standing army. Men were called up, served their time, and left. That means you either need to use skills they already have (in WWII ...


19

During the First World War, King Albert I of Belgium assumed personal command of the Belgian Armed Forces. He wasn't just visiting the front - he went into the fields with his troops and commanded them in the fighting, including at the pivotal Battle of the Yser. I don't know if this counts as "taking part in military actions" - it kind of depends on ...


18

They identify the size of the formation. That Free French unit you referred to with one X is actually a brigade, not a division. Similarly, the Greek and German unit facing each other German unit both have a single X, and has been explicitly labelled as brigades. All other units, including the Italian one you mentioned, have XX - indicating they are ...


17

PTSD, or stress reactions from battle, were well known during the Greek and Roman era. The Greeks understood it very well. Alexander the Great's men are said to have mutinied after suffering "battle fatigue." These examples of Roman era PTSD are taken from a blog of ancient examples sourced from Max Hastings', An Oxford Book of Military Anecdotes: ...


11

King Haakon VII of Norway was present in active combat zones during the German invasion of Norway in 1940. King Michael I of Romania was head of state and the official military commander in chief of Romania from 1940 to 1944, although he did not direct the fighting. In 1944 he staged an armed coup, ousting military dictator Ion Antonescu. If you consider ...


10

Fuedal Japan is also an intriguing example of what you are looking for. The Genpei War was a conflict that featured three major belligerents: The Minamoto (Yoritomo) clan, The Taira clan, and the Minamoto (Yoshinaka) clan all battling for dominance of the imperial court. To a lesser extent, the Fujiwara Clan who had long been part of the ruling elite ...


10

The sources I've found to support Peteris' point is Joshua S. Goldstein's War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Here's a quote, taken from Google Books: By some reports, "war aphrodisia" — common among soldiers in many wars — extended into many segments of society during "total war." Thus, among not only soldiers ...


9

I am not sure what you mean by "joined the fray", but it does appear that Rommel did not share Hitler's antisemitism despite being relatively close to him throughout the 1930-ies. Rommel admired Hitler for his success in dismantling the Versailles regime, but ... During Rommel's time in France, Hitler ordered him to deport the country's Jewish ...


9

The City of Xi'an / Hsi-an aka Ch'ang-an aka Hao - 51 (58) times 771 B.C. - conquered by the Quanrong barbarians 771 B.C. - recovered by Qin forces 207 B.C. - captured by Liu Bang's army A.D. 23 - captured by the Green Forests Army rebels 25 - captured by the Red Eyebrows Army rebels 26 - recovered by Deng Yu 192 - captured by Li Jue and Guo Si 198 - ...


8

I seriously doubt that Maj. Erwin König, or any "German supersniper sent out to get Zaytsev" existed, let alone an effort to "remove him from history" after Zaytsev killed him. Since there cannot be proof of non-existence, you'll have to take personal reasoning: 1) Propaganda. If there had been such a "super-sniper", he'd have had his appearance in the ...


8

The Gantt chart was originally a paper based project planning method. The Google article says The first known tool of this type was developed in 1896 by Karol Adamiecki ... . The chart is named after Henry Gantt (1861–1919), who designed his chart around the years 1910–1915. It continues One of the first major applications of Gantt charts was by ...


8

One often missed factor is that arrows are delicate and require skilled fletchers to make them. The English invasion of France under Edward IV in 1475 required two years lead time producing enough arrows to supply his troops on campaign. Also the logistics of transporting arrows is problematic. A sheaf of 24 arrows takes up considerably more space than a ...


8

Yes. Off the top of my head, jauhar is reminiscent of the Siege of Masada. Looking at the wikipedia entry for jauhar (which you linked), I see also a reference to Balinese puputan. Finally, here is a list of historical mass suicides, a number of which fit the jauhar pattern (women of a defeated group suiciding to avoid capture or slavery). In some cases, men ...


7

This seems to be most prevalent in civil wars of a country. The most recent example I can think of if the Angolan Civil War where the 3 main factions - UNITA, MPLA and FNLA fought eachother in equal measure and supported by various great/superpowers around the world. Of course at the end it became a massive proxy war between South Africa and Cuba. In ...


7

There were many reasons the English lost the 100 year's war, with Joan of Arc being one of them. The chief factor for their success upto the 1430's was Burgundy's involvement in the war. Burgundy at that time was a massive duchy under the court in Dijon and tied down a significant portion of French troops. When Burgundy switched sides, the war went ...


7

Naming conventions can seem a bit weird. For example, here in the States we know the Seven Years' War (well, to the extent that we know it at all) as the French and Indian War because... it was fought between the French and... the English, with various Native American tribes joining in on the French side. Southern sympathizers liked to call the American ...


7

There have already been some good explanations, regarding relative ease of use for muskets, as well as less training required to use, but I have not seen two constants of campaigning considered: Rain and Disease. Gunpowder and bowstrings both need to be kept dry. On a bow this was possible by unstringing it, and tucking the string somewhere relatively dry. ...


7

An almost categorical no, but I stick with a hardly. As Rajib pointed the war as a complex system, and one single variable not decide the entire destiny, and note the entire British contribution to defeat Germany was not that big. The Red Army [...] defeated 75%–80% of the German land forces (Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS) deployed in the war. Wikipedia So, ...


6

Among some of the more notable officers were: Lieutenant Colonel Mukaiyama, reportedly a staff officer in the 38th Army who became a technical advisor to the Vietnamese; killed in combat in 1946. Credited by some as the leader of Japanese forces in Vietnam, and sometimes ranked as a full colonel. Major Ishii Takuo, a staff officer in the 55th Division who ...


6

All of Western European culture, world-wide, was anti-Semitic at that time. Germany itself was extremely anti-Semitic, even more so than Europe as a whole. I do not hesitate to state that even that handful of Germans who risked their lives to save Jewish friends, would have to be regarded as anti-Semitic in regard to Jews who were not personally well-known ...


6

Joan of Arc Or rather, God. Before her arrival on the scene, it had appeared to English and French alike that God was on England's side. Her contribution to the lifting of the siege of Orleans gave some hope to the Dauphinist cause, and for a while, a belief that God was on their side. The emphatic victory at Patay and the coronation of Charles VII further ...


6

Buddhism predates Christianity and some believe some of the ideas of Buddhism traveled along the Silk Road and reached the Middle East. They may have influenced thought in that area in the years before the appearance of Christianity. Buddhism, although some would argue it’s not a religion, does promote peaceful co-existence. The five precepts are: To ...


6

It really depends on what you mean by "supposed to be practically in charge". Supposed by whom ? If the war rages on and the leader does not even know, then one can confidently say that the leader does not hold the actual power, which is instead in the hands of people who perfectly know that the leader is not actually leading. One situation which is similar ...


6

There's a lot of very good answers already; but I'd like to add on to what @Schwern has said from a Japanese perspective. When the musket was introduced in Japan in the 16th century, it quickly overtook archery in terms of importance. This is despite the fact that archery remained (and remains) a culturally important and valued skill among the samurai. ...


6

The Wikipedia article is quite extensive, but the salient points are these: The British army and militia were under-strength in 1940 but with exceptionally short supplies lines and tank production matching then eventually exceeding German production. The British were perfectly willing to gas any invaders and had stockpiles prepared in advance (the British ...


6

Does this count (North Yemen)? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_al-Badr


6

I think, the question is simply too broad for a definitive answer. What is a "reigning monarch" and what defines a "battle"? A friend of mine has been working as an MD at a missionary hospital in Papua New-Guinea. There are still wars between tribes and they have chieftains. Does a chieftain count as "reigning monarch" and do those conflicts count as ...


5

You forget the fact that Joan was not claiming to act on her own impulse - but to have had angelic visions. In the Middle Ages, when people set much store by such things this was a strong claim to attention and authority. If modern terms are really necessary, you may say she had huge charisma. Another important point is that for the Dauphin, who gave Joan ...


5

Jean d'Arc understood the strategic situation better than the nobility, and used her influence with the commoners to force the issue. She understood that aggressive offense could make significant gains, where cautious and defensive concentration of massed forces would hopelessly slow them down and lose more than it defended. The combination of aggressive ...


5

It's called the Spanish-American War because it was a war between the USA and Spain. While Cuba was part of it, a center of much of the action, the goal was to "liberate" the "oppressed" "natives" of the tattered remains of Spain's global empire from their "despotic" "masters". The proof in the pudding was Spain's behavior in Cuba. The United States had ...



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