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93

Yes, a trained archer can probably put more effective shots on an unarmored target than a trained musketman of the 18th century. The problem is that word trained. Consider that most nations in the 18th century did not have a standing army. Men were called up, served their time, and left. That means you either need to use skills they already have (in WWII ...


41

There wasn't a lack of food in the UK, not in the sense that people weren't getting enough to eat or were suffering malnutrition. What there was is a lack of variety of food. Anything which was imported (citrus, tropical fruits, tea, coffee, sugar), expensive (meat) or important to the war effort (fats, meat, canned anything) would be rationed. Rationing ...


27

Recorded in Plutarch's De garrulitate, this is an example of a Laconic phrase: After invading Greece and receiving the submission of other key city-states, Philip II of Macedon sent a message to Sparta: "If I invade Laconia you will be destroyed, never to rise again." The Spartan ephors replied with a single word: "If" (αἴκα). Subsequently ...


22

(1) "The Battle of France" - so called by the French. The the term "Battle of France is widely used for the WW2 fighting of the French against the German invasion. See e.g. Wikipedia Battle of France And the naming of it accordingly is attested to e.g. Winston Churchill: here ... What General Weygand has called The Battle of France is over. The ...


21

They identify the size of the formation. That Free French unit you referred to with one X is actually a brigade, not a division. Similarly, the Greek and German unit facing each other German unit both have a single X, and has been explicitly labelled as brigades. All other units, including the Italian one you mentioned, have XX - indicating they are ...


19

During the First World War, King Albert I of Belgium assumed personal command of the Belgian Armed Forces. He wasn't just visiting the front - he went into the fields with his troops and commanded them in the fighting, including at the pivotal Battle of the Yser. I don't know if this counts as "taking part in military actions" - it kind of depends on ...


18

The Austro-Prussian War is currently known in Germany as "Deutscher Krieg", or "The German War" - though it was originally known as "Preußisch-Deutscher Krieg", or "Prussian-German War". Another contender are the Napoleonic Wars--or the Guerres napoléoniennes, as they are called in France.


16

Origins of Pan-Slavism Speaking as a (western) Slav, panslavism was indeed a big topic in 19th century politics. The primary reason for this seems to have been that outside of Russia, most Slavic populations were not in fact in their own nation states, but rather were subjugated by other national groups. This included, for instance, Czechs under Austrian ...


13

I can think of an example of this from the ancient period: The Lamian War(323–322 BC): was known to the ancient Greeks as the "Hellenic War". Obviously there were many wars in ancient Greece that we could call "Hellenic Wars" but this particular one was explicitly noted by Diodorus Siculus as such. Independent Greek states fought on both sides of this ...


12

Yes. Off the top of my head, jauhar is reminiscent of the Siege of Masada. Looking at the wikipedia entry for jauhar (which you linked), I see also a reference to Balinese puputan. Finally, here is a list of historical mass suicides, a number of which fit the jauhar pattern (women of a defeated group suiciding to avoid capture or slavery). In some cases, men ...


12

One potential answer is "The People's Crusade." This certainly refers to the people fighting it (peasants instead of noblemen). I haven't found any primary source material for contemporaries calling it "The People's Crusade", but this source seems to suggest that it was called "The Popular Crusade" which is fairly close. As two sheds and Steve Jessop ...


11

King Haakon VII of Norway was present in active combat zones during the German invasion of Norway in 1940. King Michael I of Romania was head of state and the official military commander in chief of Romania from 1940 to 1944, although he did not direct the fighting. In 1944 he staged an armed coup, ousting military dictator Ion Antonescu. If you consider ...


11

Naming a war after the leader of our side (especially if he wants to be remembered for the victory, even anticipated) like in "Napoleonic Wars" as referenced by two sheds seems to be the most natural case of naming the war after one's side. In Clone Wars it's a different case: naming the war after a key or new weapon. I don't know about any war named like ...


11

UK, like most other developed (and not so developed) countries, does not produce all food that it consumes. Some food is imported in most cases. In the case of UK during WW2 much of the food was imported. As the war started, a) the oceans became dangerous. Because of the German cruisers and submarines. b) the shipping capacities were needed for other ...


10

One often missed factor is that arrows are delicate and require skilled fletchers to make them. The English invasion of France under Edward IV in 1475 required two years lead time producing enough arrows to supply his troops on campaign. Also the logistics of transporting arrows is problematic. A sheaf of 24 arrows takes up considerably more space than a ...


10

It may be the German V-3, with a maximum range of 165 km. It was destroyed before it could be fired, although several experimental models were used in Luxembourg in 1944-1945. After the war, a U.S.-Canadian group revived the V-3, hoping to use it as a cheap weay to launch objects into space. According to this military history site: Using a testing ...


9

The City of Xi'an / Hsi-an aka Ch'ang-an aka Hao - 51 (58) times 771 B.C. - conquered by the Quanrong barbarians 771 B.C. - recovered by Qin forces 207 B.C. - captured by Liu Bang's army A.D. 23 - captured by the Green Forests Army rebels 25 - captured by the Red Eyebrows Army rebels 26 - recovered by Deng Yu 192 - captured by Li Jue and Guo Si 198 - ...


8

There have already been some good explanations, regarding relative ease of use for muskets, as well as less training required to use, but I have not seen two constants of campaigning considered: Rain and Disease. Gunpowder and bowstrings both need to be kept dry. On a bow this was possible by unstringing it, and tucking the string somewhere relatively dry. ...


8

I seriously doubt that Maj. Erwin König, or any "German supersniper sent out to get Zaytsev" existed, let alone an effort to "remove him from history" after Zaytsev killed him. Since there cannot be proof of non-existence, you'll have to take personal reasoning: 1) Propaganda. If there had been such a "super-sniper", he'd have had his appearance in the ...


8

A very raw comparison of the fleet strengths of the major players during the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic Wars is given below. In these tables a Ship of the Line is any vessel that would be considered to sit in the line of battle, generally these had their guns on 2 or 3 decks and had 50 or more cannon. Cruisers are smaller sea-going warships, ...


7

The Tripartite Struggle for Kannauj , is a very good example. There were 3 sides, The Pala rulers from Bengal, the Gurjara Pratihara of Rajasthan and West, and The Rashtrakuta, from South Or Deccan. The war continued for more than 3 generations on each side. Finally, The Pratihara rulers emerged victorious. This was an important era in history of India. ...


7

There's a lot of very good answers already; but I'd like to add on to what @Schwern has said from a Japanese perspective. When the musket was introduced in Japan in the 16th century, it quickly overtook archery in terms of importance. This is despite the fact that archery remained (and remains) a culturally important and valued skill among the samurai. ...


7

An almost categorical no, but I stick with a hardly. As Rajib pointed the war as a complex system, and one single variable not decide the entire destiny, and note the entire British contribution to defeat Germany was not that big. The Red Army [...] defeated 75%–80% of the German land forces (Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS) deployed in the war. Wikipedia So, ...


6

Schwern had a lot of very good points, but there are other factors as well. siege warfare. Most of the battles in 17th and 18th century were sieges, where at least one side was fortified. Bows and crossbows have to be aimed relatively high to shoot at longer ranges. This means both that it's easier to protect against them with a simple wooden roof, and ...


6

The Wikipedia article is quite extensive, but the salient points are these: The British army and militia were under-strength in 1940 but with exceptionally short supplies lines and tank production matching then eventually exceeding German production. The British were perfectly willing to gas any invaders and had stockpiles prepared in advance (the British ...


6

Does this count (North Yemen)? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_al-Badr


6

I think, the question is simply too broad for a definitive answer. What is a "reigning monarch" and what defines a "battle"? A friend of mine has been working as an MD at a missionary hospital in Papua New-Guinea. There are still wars between tribes and they have chieftains. Does a chieftain count as "reigning monarch" and do those conflicts count as ...


6

The Takeda attack destroyed the first palisades, but was unable to break through much further. Their army ended up smashing themselves against the second line. I can see how that could be described as "sappers" failing before the Oda defences. On the other hand, the battle was most likely not a cavalry charge. Despite popular mythology, riders made up less ...


6

If you don't care if they were actually used in combat, then the German V-3 cannons would certainly seem to be in with a shot (pardon the pun), with a projected range of 165km. If you're including land-based guns that fired straight up, then Project Harp had a 'range' of 180km.


6

Common knowledge: The One Time Pad is in theory unbreakable (and in practice if properly managed - I'm looking at you Soviet Union). This is a Poly-alphabetic substitution cipher with a random key (in effect infinity long).



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