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22

For a relatively brief period in China's Three Kingdoms era, the three states of Wu/Shu/Wei were actively fighting each other. For most of the rest of the time, Wu and Shu were allied in their resistance against the vastly stronger Wei. In 219 (AD), the ill-fated Battle of Fancheng took place. Shu, fresh from their acquisition of Hanzhong, invaded Wei, but ...


20

Let's do the math: 100,000 mounted archers * 4 horses each * 10 kg/day * 250 days/campaign = 1,000,000,000 kg of forage required each campaign. As noted here annual forage yield of meadow steppe is about 2000 kg/ha; of typical steppe about 900 kg/ha; and even desert steppe yields 200 kg/ha. Thus the area required to support Genghis's cavalry for a campaign ...


18

Simply because Switzerland was a worse alternative plan strategically than Netherlands and Belgium. Hitler had a plan to attack Switzerland, named Operation Tannenbaum but the Maginot line could be breached through Belgium and Netherland. So it became needless conflict with no gain. It is a less known fact that Switzerland (German part namely) was part of ...


17

Here are some rough specs for common planes (as I said in the comment, the endurance depends on various factors). Sopwith Camel (BR) combat endurance (at 1000 m) - 2:30 (hr.:min.) cruise endurance (...) - 5:00 SPAD S.XIII (FR) combat endurance (...) - 1:30-2:00 cruise endurance (...) - 3:00 Albatross D.III (GER) combat endurance (...) - 1:30-2:00 ...


13

You should consider the Bosnian war (in Yugoslavia) in the 1990s, there were basically three factions fighting each other: the Orthodox Christian Serbs (Serbia), the Catholic Croats (Croatia) and the Slavic Muslims (Bosnia). The war was three-sided from 1992 to 1994, and two-sided in 1995-1996. You can see that even the table of belligerents in the ...


11

When a war starts, the diplomats lock down the embassy and leave through a neutral country. They are neither molested nor harassed, and their diplomatic immunity is not disputed. The embassy building and the property therein is taken care of by the neutral country representing the interests of the belligerent (or some other arrangements may be made). The ...


11

Switzerland isn't much of a "prize." It has about 16,000 square miles, and about 4.5 million people in 1940 making it twice the size of New Jersey, with about as many people. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerland On both counts, it is one of the smaller countries in Europe, and less worth having. On the other hand, Switzerland maintains a policy of armed ...


11

The second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War may be a good example. There was a civil war between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party (CPC) factions, and in the middle of this Japan invaded. Both KMT and CPC resisted the Japanese, and at some point they even (nominally) cooperated. This cooperation was brief, however, and there were major ...


9

This is not really an answer to your question, but the following numbers look much more realistic. In the Russian army at the beginning of XX century daily ration for horses consisted of 4 kg of oats, 4 kg of hay and 1.6 kg of straw. Since the Mongol horses didn't eat oats (nomads had no oats) ration should be counted as hay - 15 pounds (6 kg) of ...


9

I am not sure what you mean by "joined the fray", but it does appear that Rommel did not share Hitler's antisemitism despite being relatively close to him throughout the 1930-ies. Rommel admired Hitler for his success in dismantling the Versailles regime, but ... During Rommel's time in France, Hitler ordered him to deport the country's Jewish ...


7

To take one example, in 1935, Hitler negotiated the Anglo German Naval Treaty (details in the link). Anglo-German Naval Agreement This treaty "broke" the Versailles Treaty because it gave Germany naval tonnage limits ABOVE Versailles. It was a bilateral treaty between England and Germany, concluded without consulting the other Versailles signatories, ...


7

British Major General Robert Ross landed his brigade on 18 August 1814 at Benedict, Maryland, less than 40 miles (65 km) from Washington DC. The Royal Navy had blockaded Chesapeake Bay since spring 1813, and the US had built the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla for protection; this was trapped in the Patuxent River, enabling the British to land. The only ...


7

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the world's only significant sources of Energy were manual and animal labour fueled by food supplies. In much of the Third World today that statement remains true. Therefore any distinction between Wars over food resources and other sources such as Oil and Coal is an artificial one, and equivalent to Wars between modern ...


7

There were many reasons the English lost the 100 year's war, with Joan of Arc being one of them. The chief factor for their success upto the 1430's was Burgundy's involvement in the war. Burgundy at that time was a massive duchy under the court in Dijon and tied down a significant portion of French troops. When Burgundy switched sides, the war went ...


6

The timing difference merely reflected the previous difference in deadline presented to Germany for withdrawal from Poland: 11:00 am the deadline presented by Great Britain, and 5:00pm that presented by France. Both countries promptly declared war as the respective deadlines passed without any withdrawal by Germany from Poland. The deadlines themselves had ...


6

A full answer would have to do a detailed comparison of resources and relative numbers of invasions across time and territories, which is a bit much, or else track down the motivations of leaders for each particular war, which someone might offer here. Let me get at your question in two ways: 1) What resources were there, and how were they exploited by ...


6

I believe Romania's chief misfortune during the Middle Ages was to be right next to Eurasian Steppe, in an era when settled communities really had no military answer to the expert horse archers that steppe country naturally incubated. Another view (for as long as the link lasts) To make matters worse, right on the other side of Romania is the Hungarian ...


6

Fuedal Japan is also an intriguing example of what you are looking for. The Genpei War was a conflict that featured three major belligerents: The Minamoto (Yoritomo) clan, The Taira clan, and the Minamoto (Yoshinaka) clan all battling for dominance of the imperial court. To a lesser extent, the Fujiwara Clan who had long been part of the ruling elite ...


6

All of Western European culture, world-wide, was anti-Semitic at that time. Germany itself was extremely anti-Semitic, even more so than Europe as a whole. I do not hesitate to state that even that handful of Germans who risked their lives to save Jewish friends, would have to be regarded as anti-Semitic in regard to Jews who were not personally well-known ...


5

Note that (according to Churchill anyway) Britain also declared war on Japan several hours before the USA did. You'll have trouble finding anyone arguing that this showed that the USA was a "junior partner". Churchill put it down to the difference in the two governments. In the USA, a formal declaration of war requires an act of Congress. Both houses didn't ...


5

It appears that you are basically asking if USA sources ever publish histories that are either cheifly about, or at least include, some of the more unsavory, or even downright immoral conduct of the United States throughout its history. The answer to that has to be an unequivocal yes. The temptation here is to produce a list (which is outside of the bounds ...


5

pretty much, yes. Set up camp, play loud music over the walls, send out parties to pillage and loot the surrounding countryside for supplies and to hunt for attempts at tunneling under your camp), if possible maybe rotate out part of your forces with fresh ones from home. It's a game of chicken basically, who has the most patience and resources, with the ...


5

You forget the fact that Joan was not claiming to act on her own impulse - but to have had angelic visions. In the Middle Ages, when people set much store by such things this was a strong claim to attention and authority. If modern terms are really necessary, you may say she had huge charisma. Another important point is that for the Dauphin, who gave Joan ...


5

Naming conventions can seem a bit weird. For example, here in the States we know the Seven Years' War (well, to the extent that we know it at all) as the French and Indian War because... it was fought between the French and... the English, with various Native American tribes joining in on the French side. Southern sympathizers liked to call the American ...


5

Think of it this way. Contemporary to Mussolini and Hitler, every major European country had a "fascist" movement with a "national socialist" type ideology. Arrow Cross, Nasjonalsamling, Iron Guard, NSB, and so forth. All of them were variously "marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of ...


4

There were plenty: E.g. the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) form such a pair. Obviously Prussia (soon to become center of the German Empire as proclaimed by Wilhelm I in 1871) participated in both. As a European who has been born in the 1960s I rather often comment to my friends that it has been extraordinary good fortune ...


4

Reasons for Arabs starting the war during Ramadan: Arab attacked Israel on October 6, 1973. That year, October was the month of Ramadan. But the main reason for attack on this day was Yom Kippur festival, which was on this day. Yom Kippur also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year for the Jewish people. Arabs were defeated in all ...


4

According to this link, there are a few examples: France vs Mexico, 1863 Britain vs Egypt, 1882 Germany/Britain/Italy vs Venezuela, 1902-03 (naval blockade) US vs Dominican Republic, 1905 (revenue arrestment) US vs Nicaragua, 1911 (revenue arrestment) In a handful of famous cases, official intervention went beyond diplomatic pressure or threat of ...


4

How would it matter if people support war when Spain was not the aggressor? They supported it as it was a defensive war. In these times it was obvious to fight. I read a Polish book, some years ago, later on the evening (I live in CET zone) I will provide this as a source if someone is interested, but the main idea was that Spanish knew they were about to ...


4

Yes, there are several conflicts like that. The Chaco war, 1932-1935. The Iraq invasion of Kuwait, 1990. The Sudan - South Sudan border conflict, 2012. There are also civil conflicts like for example in Nigeria that is about oil. Note that these are not about energy per se, but about money, and is therefore not really anything different from any war ...



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