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-4

Firstly, weapon technology is difficult to research because it is usually secret and gunpowder is no exception, so most important evidence is purely indirect; you have infer the invention from other evidence, such as metallurgical evidence. Secondly the idea that gunpowder came by the "silk road" or that it originated in China, Mongolia, Arabia or other ...


2

We don't know how it was made because the formula for it has been lost. It was probably not even the same thing in every case, but instead a generic name for incendiary weapons. The real power of Greek Fire seems to be that the Byzantines delivered it in tube, like a flamethrower, rather than catapults.


3

A railgun currently being developed by the US navy is planned to be integrated onto a ship by 2016 (although the reference is from 2010) with an estimated range of 160 km. It's unclear how far the current technology is able to reach given the probable secrecy of the project. The end goal is to eventually reach as far as 370 km.


5

In 2005 the Advanced Modular Gun Demonstrator test fired 85 miles or 137km and the shells could go 45km high. One article quotes the barrel pressure at 100,000 psi which is absurd. However, it is research equipment, not a practical weapon. Here is a presentation about it that looks so bad I'd think it were a joke if I didn't know better. That edges out ...


10

It may be the German V-3, with a maximum range of 165 km. It was destroyed before it could be fired, although several experimental models were used in Luxembourg in 1944-1945. After the war, a U.S.-Canadian group revived the V-3, hoping to use it as a cheap weay to launch objects into space. According to this military history site: Using a testing ...


6

If you don't care if they were actually used in combat, then the German V-3 cannons would certainly seem to be in with a shot (pardon the pun), with a projected range of 165km. If you're including land-based guns that fired straight up, then Project Harp had a 'range' of 180km.


0

I have had a theory for the last couple of years. Of course I'm not a Dr.(only play one on tv). I am a Marine Corps combat veteran and suffer from some PTSD. I have been told that I have night terrors accompanied with throwing punches into the air. On my end of the event, I am having a dream that I am back in the Corps and my unit is involved in a firefight ...


0

There are no statitics for this. Its impossible to know how many were destroyed or thrown away. But many are coming to light as inheritances. I saw an article about one such skull being put up for auction, along side other animal remains and exotic items: http://www.secretagentmarketing.com/eccentrics-eclectic-collection-goes-under-the-hammer/


1

Forcing everyone to fire in unison allows the commander to easily identify and execute shirkers, and thus increases the probability that everyone will fire. Individual arrows are also lost in the volley, and thus individual archers can have plausible deniability that they have just killed a human being. Most military tactics are about getting the most out ...


6

In olden days, there was very little toleration for queasiness or mental instability under fire. For example, this is a quote from a British military manual published in 1804: The cowardice, or irregular behaviour of one or two men, is enough to put a whole battalion in danger. A soldier that quits his rank, or offers to fly, is to be instantly put ...


2

While the term is certainly new, I think most American high school children have read one of the most famous accounts of what would now be called PTSD after WWI. That novel is All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque, and details one soldier's life in and out of the war. He displays many of the common syptoms of PTSD - inability to ...


8

The symptoms of PTSD were first described by Herodotus when referring to Epizelus, a survivor of the 490BC Battle of Marathon, in his Histories 6.117.1-3: In this fight at Marathon there were slain of the Barbarians about six thousand four hundred men, and of the Athenians a hundred and ninety and two. Such was the number which fell on both sides; ...


9

As other's have stated, part of the reason is that it's a medical term that's only been coined in recent history. The same is true with Autism, for instance. People have always had it, but it wasn't until the 60's that the term came into use to describe what we now know as Autism. There's also another medical aspect to this as well and that's the fact that ...


7

They didn't end up in any one particular place. In more recent decades, discovered skulls are generally returned to Japan, or disposed of in various ways (lack of identification). Certainly at least some would have been gotten rid of (through burial or otherwise) since WW2 was still ongoing. American authorities did not officially approve of the practise. ...


6

In addition to other factors mentioned by Samuel Russel and TheHonRose, there might be one purely "technical" factor. I'm not an expert, I've only stumbled upon this one article saying that there is evidence of actual brain damage from explosions: Combat veterans' brains reveal hidden damage from IED blasts The brains of some Iraq and Afghanistan ...


1

The Saxons at one point in the 8-9th centuries settled in eastern Poland, Western Belarus. After an invasion of Bulgars and Slavs in the 10th century a sundering occurred in which a group of Saxons migrated to the lower Volga region. This tribe of Germanic east Saxons formed a small empire and expanded further east into the Kirghiz regions and possible as ...


40

I believe this is as much sociological as medical. Terms such as 'shell shock' or 'battle fatigue' were used from at least WWI - it was believed that shelling actually 'shocked' the brain - but there was far less understanding of, or sympathy for, the effect war could have on men (women were not generally involved in actual combat). The term 'NMF' was ...


16

The term PTSD was invented in the 1980s by the medical discipline of psychiatry. The condition which the term PTSD refers to was well known to people from antiquity under various names with different meanings specific to those societies ( http://io9.com/5898560/from-irritable-heart-to-shellshock-how-post-traumatic-stress-became-a-disease ). The matter is ...


1

The type VII U-Boat used at the time had a single, unprotected 88mm deck gun. The type IX had a larger 105mm gun. Their primary use was to sink unescorted merchant ships because torpedoes are expensive. While the range is listed as 12km, I have serious doubts they could hit even a large industrial target at half that range at night from the pitching deck ...


2

There was always the possibility of a division or squadron acting independently. For example, the Americans learned, the hard way, that their destroyer squadrons were best allowed to attack independently in night surface actions. The squadron staff would prepare plans for this. The staff were not large below the task force level. An added four or five ...


1

Cruisers, and other ships, were organized into groups, or divisions, that fought as a unit. Here was a U.S. naval [Order of Battle].1 This had little to do with sending such ships on "detached duty." These ships fought as units, or divisions with a given fleet (as they would in an "army,") and had division staffs administering them.



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