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1

Muzzle-loading weapons were apparently frequently loaded with multiple shot. You can read this in the old literature, for example in Robinson Crusoe (17 century), where the procedure is described in detail. Multiple shot scattered increasing the probability of a hit.


6

Yes It's a variant of the belt claw technique of arming crossbows. Possible reasons include extended range due to a greater pull and presenting a smaller target profile for opposing crossbowmen. Bear in mind that military techniques varied throughout Chinese history, and that much of current theory is based on conjecture. Here's what we do know: Chinese ...


8

#1 happened often. Soldiers were drilled to load, aim and fire in a fixed rhythm to maintain volley fire. In a well-drilled unit, this was muscle memory. If a soldier's musket did not fire, they may not notice with all the other guns going off simultaneously. The order to load would come, and they would dutifully pour more powder in and ram another ball ...


10

According to The Big Book of Gun Trivia, of the 24000 loaded muskets recovered after the Battle of Gettysburg, a quarter were properly loaded, half were double loaded, and the last quarter were multiple (>2) loaded. A further 11000 were unloaded. Research (http://www.policyscience.net/ws/marshall.pdf among others) has shown that combat soldiers in past ...


-1

This apparently refers to a Gettysburg study. The story is that after the battle of Gettysburg, the ordnance department collected all the abandoned rifles from the battlefield and examined them. In some cases rifles were found with multiple loadings, ie, ball, wadding, powder, ball wadding powder, ball wadding power, etc, one after the other in the barrel. ...


7

Most of the rifles used in WWI were designed, adopted and procured 10-20 years prior during a period of great upheaval in military rifle technology. In the decades leading up to WWI there was a great change in ammunition which most lever designs could not accommodate. Militaries were rapidly adapting rounds with better ballistics in addition to larger and ...


2

Underbarrel magazine have many shortcomings: displacement of the center of mass during shooting, placement rounds one after another makes rifle sensitive to shocks, feed mechanism is more complicated and less reliable, reloading this magazine is not so fast as box magazine (with en-bloc clip or stripper clip).


0

Unit to unit comparisons are extremely difficult and not particularly useful outside of the actual circumstances of a particular engagement. Red Army units had enormous variation in quality and technology as they quite literally threw everything they had at the Germans - later on in the war the Germans were in much the same position. Undoubtedly there were ...


1

I want to compare unit for unit parity, let's say at the platoon or company level. Let's say the equivalent of a German and Soviet armored company approach each other in 1941, 1943 and 1945. Evaluating the equipment in a vacuum is not interesting. To appreciate why the Germans dominated in 1941, why they lost that dominance, and why the T-34 is ...


1

"figures vary but it is generally accepted that the Panther cost about 3 times as much as the T-34. For this reason only 6,000 Panthers entered service during the 1943-1945 period compared to 16,000 T-34s in 1943 alone!" Not only did it cost around 3x as much, but it took about 8x as many worker-hours! A very similar design to the Panther, with most of the ...


5

The Rodney actually fired torpedoes at the Bismarck during their battle, but missed. The torpedoes carried by Rodney & Nelson (a very unusual class of BB - all 3 primary turrets were fore and none were aft, they were the first to be designed specifically for the Naval Treaty limitaations, and they were the last battleships to be armed with torpedoes at ...


2

An additional reason might be that infantry doctrine prior to and during most of WWI still considered the bayonet charge a valid tactic. Indeed giving the enemy a 'taste of cold steel' had an almost mythical effectiveness and was seen as the ultimate goal of the infantryman. As a result an infantry rifle had to be rugged enough to be used as a spear. A pump ...


11

In researching the HMS Dorsetshire I came across a reference to "The Ship That Sank Herself" which lead to an article on ships that torpedoed themselves which includes the British light cruiser HMS Trinidad. HMS Trinidad was taking part in Arctic convoy duty in 1942 when she engaged the German destroyer Z-26. Although she sank the destroyer, one of the ...


11

In the Battle of Savo Island the Japanese cruisers repeatedly hit US and Australian ships with torpedoes. There was only 1 destroyer present versus 7 cruisers, and it is likely that most if not all of the torpedo hits that sunk 3 cruisers and led to another being scuttled were from the cruisers. Certainly the US Navy credited to them. Also: The British ...


6

To quote from Field and Stream (1909): All sportsmen are familiar with the bolt action military rifle and the lever-action sporting rifle. Each has advantages over the other according to how and where it is to be used. The strength, durability and ease of repair of the military bolt type appeals lo the sportsman going out for big game in the ...



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