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14

The Jewish calendar is in year 5774 (between September of 2013 and October of 2014, it's a leap year), so the "Jewish civilization" is not in 2014. The state of Israel, which is really the only official body to recognize the Jewish calendar, determines all of its holidays and memorial days on the basis of the Jewsih calendar. However, all of the civil dates ...


10

The Gregorian calendar, Western calendar or the Christian calendar, is a calendar that was a reform in 1582 to the Julian calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named. But was is an adaptation of a calendar designed by Italian doctor, astronomer and philosopher Luigi Lilio. And it is not nesassarly based of Jesus birth ...


9

Hepatitis and encephalitis describe an inflammation of a specific organ (respectively the liver and the brain), not a specific virus or infectious agent, and can have multiple causes. Like many other infectious agents, the hepatitis viruses have been identified and described rather recently and early accounts are sometimes vague on the symptoms, thus making ...


9

Where to start? Starting from the forced exchange of population between Greece and Turkey in 1923, you will find no shortage of examples, some of truly unbelievable scale. Among the most prominent ones are population transfer and Russian settlements in the former USSR (considering the brutality of the regime, I think it is beyond dispute that these satisfy ...


8

Olympic games in old Greece were traditionally held every 4 years. Modern olympic games respect that tradition. While in the beginning of modern olympics there were little economic pressure on the host (there were few sports and no expensive infrastructure was needed), nowdays it is just not economically feasible to held them more then once in 4 years. (Bear ...


7

New Zealand is usually credited to be the last significant area on Earth to have been colonized by human beings in the sense of the question; as the first settlers seem to have arrived in the late 1200CE. By contrast, there are signs of human settlements on Madagascar dating from the beginning of the common era and records of trade with the island dating ...


6

I can think of several examples which are big enough, recent enough and well known enough not to be disputed. In 1938 the Germans occupied Czechoslovakia, and civilians were free to settle there under the "Lebensraum" (breathing room) philosophy. The occupation was (at first) of an area populated mostly by ethnic Germans, but legally at least that doesn't ...


4

Source: Kremer, Michael. "Population growth and technological change: one million BC to 1990." The Quarterly Journal of Economics (1993): 681-716. Graph by Richard Vermillion.


4

In USA foreign policy ruled Domino theory that speculated if one country came under influence of communists, surrounding country might also get communist. USA wanted to stop spreading of communism so they got involved in Vietnam war in 1964. Lyndon B. Johnson in 1963 said: The battle against communism... must be joined... with strength and determination. ...


4

For those running a Windows operating system with MS Outlook, who wish to experiment with alternate calendars, instructions are available here, or by selecting from the Ribbon in Office 2007 or later: File -> Options -> Calendar -> Calendar Options -> Enable Alternate Calendar The available Calendars are listed below with their respective representation ...


4

The Chinese have a Chinese calendar. In India there are several Calendars. For practical purposes, the Indian Government and all commercial establishments follow the Gregorian calendar- to "synch" with the rest of the world. It makes scientific sense to follow UTC and a standard that is universal. That's how the globalized system works. But local ...


4

Syphilis has been in the America's for awhile, so far no evidence has been found of in pre-colombian Europe. Excerpt:"Using these criteria, they examined 687 skeletons from archaeological sites in the United States and Ecuador ranging in age from 400 to 6,000 years. Populations to the south (New Mexico, Florida, and Ecuador) proved to have syphilis, while ...


4

According to Elman Service (who coined the Band-Tribe-Chiefdom-State sociopolitical typology), societies "naturally" tend to centralization of power when they begin to do agriculture. One argument for that is that central power leads to more efficient promotion and coordination of large infrastructure works, in particular irrigation. The leader also uses his ...


3

Besides the Football War you mention, the only instance I know of that a football game influenced an actual war is case #10 listed below, the 1990 Red Star vs. Dinamo game in Zagreb. Here is a list of ten games that featured violent outcomes: 2012, Port Said-Cairo match in Egypt saw over 70 people killed accompanied by massive riots and burning down of the ...


3

How about in 1948 when India invaded Hyderabad and conquered it? Any Indians who since moved to the area are also occupying settlers.


2

Japan conquered IndoChina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) during WWII. After the war, the French went back to retake their colonial territory, but communist fighters, the Viet Minh, were trying to also take control. The First Indochina War broke out. (The Vietnam War is also known as the Second Indochina War) So, the US entered the war because: the US signed the ...


2

According to The Last Lion - Defender of the Realm 1940-1965 by Manchester & Read (page 334), 40,000 British and ANZAC troops were evacuated from Greece in April 1941. That would leave about 15,000 total casualties - Killed, unevacuated wounded, and POW. Still from that source (page 356), Casualties in Crete a month later were 1,700 killed, 2,000 ...


2

As already mentioned by others, most countries around the world tend to use for official business purposes the Gregorian calendar. I think it would be quite unusual if there are places in the world where people are familiar with their own calendar year but are unaware that it is the Gregorian year 2014 now. Nonetheless, some calendars in East and Southeast ...


2

One example is the Russian population in Kazakhstan. (The USSR transferred large populations around, so this is probably not the only example.) Settlement started in the 19th century, but increased in the 20th century. According to Wikipedia, by 1917, 30% of the population was Russian. Many more Russians arrived in the years 1953-1965,during the ...


2

Crimea (occupied by Russia from Crimean tatars, with tatars forcibly deported and Russians moved in). Later re-occupied in 2014, with both Ukrainians and Crimean tatars being discriminated against (the leader of Crimean tatars was exiled). Königsberg, which USSR occupied, de-germanized, and turned into Russian-majority Калинингра́д.


1

French Algeria might qualify. Algeria was conquered militarily and maintained under French control against regular rebellions. Its status within the empire was very different from other colonies, with a tight integration to France itself, while maintaining a sharp distinction between “natives” and “Europeans” (which included not only settlers coming from ...


1

The Government of Tamil Nadu (A state in India) follows Tiruvalluvar year. This calendar will have the year 31 BC as the year Tiruvalluvar might have possibly existed; So, the calculation would be 31 years ahead of Gregorian calendar. The Tamil Calendar also have 12 months which starts from Chitirai followed by 11 other Tamil months. This calendar also has ...



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