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28

The question I might have asked is, "Is the U.S. a Superpower today because of World War ONE?" And that's the question I'll answer. In 1914, the U.S. probably was not the strongest country in the world (perhaps third or fourth, no weaker than fifth). By 1918, the U.S. was the strongest country in the world, with Germany, Britain, France, and Russia having ...


22

I seriously doubt it. Japan was a traditional monarchy, philosophically and ideologically far closer to China than Germany. Of course both were mortal enemies and had been for centuries. Far more likely they were drawn together simply by the fact that both were shut out from the "international community" and felt slighted by the UK and US (and in case of ...


16

The Japanese, Germans, and Italians primarily allied based on their late-bloomer status and desire for geopolitical revisionism. Whereas countries like England, France, Russia, and so forth had unified and developed empires in the centuries prior to industrialization, the Axis powers had not really unified and become politically and militarily centralized ...


14

The Enigma machines and the breaking of the Enigma code were not the main determinants of the outcome of World War II, but did contribute to the outcome. There were only a few types of Enigma machines, so they had to be capable of using different encryption keys. If machines used the same encryption key for message after message, the encryption would be ...


8

No. For instance, you are wrong that Japan promoted racism on the official basis. In fact, throughout the war up to 1944 they conducted several international conferences against racism. This was very bold move given the position of Germany. Japan also was the government that proposed amendments to the League of Nations charter condemning racism (before the ...


7

It depends on how you define "Second Front." The Allies opened a "second front" in North Africa in November, 1942. That was huge because the battle of Stalingrad was going on at the same time. Germany had to divert most of its air transport fleet to reinforcing North Africa, and suffered heavy casualties. When the transports returned to the eastern front, ...


6

The salaries stopped as soon as Flensburg government was dissolved. The officials and technical personnel went on with their lives - found other jobs, went home or emigrated. The buildings laid fallow until the Bundesrepublik & DDR were proclaimed in 1949, at what time they were turned to the East (in the Eastern Block) or West Germany (the rest of the ...


6

Good question with several answers. First a nod to Lennart for pointing out that Germany grew just like France and Britain and the USA, so a certain amount of "a rising tide floats all boats." However there were some factors that advantaged Germany more than the others: Highly educated, savings-minded workforce whose population losses were instantly ...


6

Of course! There are major differences between the ideology of Germany, Japan and Italy, but there is one major similarity: they disliked the communists. If the immediate threat from the left was less than in Italy and Germany, it nevertheless is apparent that the establishment was alarmed by it. After 1918, when spontaneous riots over the rocketing ...


6

I presume it would have been the F.N. model. 1922: This was a variation of the F.N. model. 1910 that was commissioned by the Yugoslavian military in the inter-war period with 60,000 ordered with both general issue and "officer" markings. Note, the Wikipedia article is horribly referenced, but you should be able to confirm this in Anthony Vanderlinden's ...


6

"Allies" capturing Engima machines (what you really mean was British navy, who then in Hollywood were magically transformed into US navy) was really of no importance. What was important was capturing code books. The wiring of the Enigma machine was known since the 1930s, when Polish mathematicians managed to reconstruct it from very limited information. ...


5

Yes and no. Reasons for YES: Both were anti-communist and had geopolitical claims against the Soviet Union. Both were rebelling against the international order created by established powers as established in the settlement of World War I. Both were obsessed with economic autarky and wanted to build land empires to achieve it. Germany vis-a-vis "the ...


5

Yes, they do allow multiple keys. Typically they had a new key every day. See this Wikipedia article: Though Enigma had some cryptographic weaknesses, in practice it was German procedural flaws, operator mistakes, laziness, failure to systematically introduce changes in encipherment procedures, and Allied capture of key tables and hardware that, during ...


5

One answer would be that a military "contingency plan" of sorts was written into Fall Weiß itself - the operational plan for the invasion of Poland was written so as to begin no later than September 1st, 1939. However, it is probably very unlikely that the invasion of Poland would have been canceled if Treaty of Non-aggression hadn't been signed prior to ...


4

It's hard to not include possibly biased views or controversial arguments when answering such a question. But considering the vague nature of the question, there will be no definite answer anyhow. Apart from the fact that one can not give a strict definition of the term "superpower", there is no single chain of causalities between a global event like WWII ...


4

Wikipedia's page on conscription actually gives a pretty good breakdown. In WWII, males between 18 and 64 were required to register, but the selections were limited by executive order on December 5, 1942 from from 21–45 to 18–38. Assuming the citation (George Q. Flynn, The Draft, 1940–1973) is correct, 50 million men from 18 to 45 were registered. The ...


4

Parole is indeed the word that all parties would have used and understood in 1945. In fact, this is a military tradition that has roots going back as far as Roman Empire - for example, Marcus Atilius Regulus was released on parole by the Carthaginians in 250 B.C.. It was relatively common through the end of the American Civil War, where it was done through ...


3

Neutral Switzerland was an venue for communication between belligerents' intelligence services, and thus was of benefit to all sides. Additionally, Germany used the Switzerland's famous watch-making industry to circumvent the allied blockade on Beryllium copper, used for springs in watches and machine guns. (The source: a book on history of metallurgy I ...


3

HMS Spurious was a 1930's Albion Bus that, as your quote says, was converted to resemble the island of an aircraft carrier. It was used by the Deck Landing Control Officers school based at RNAS East Haven. Extract from The British Fleet Air Arm in World War II By Mark Barber. The book, at least in its google books form, does not directly mention HMS ...


2

It's a negative number; the bombs were militarily unnecessary to secure the Japanese surrender. The US Strategic Bombing Survey, released 1946, estimated that: Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts, and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, ...


2

The German weapons development effort (including nuclear weapons) was fragmented among numerous competing groups, each jealously guarding their resources and not sharing information with other groups. German Secret Weapons of the Second World War, by Ian V Hogg, discusses this in great detail. As for the Bomb specifically, the evidence is that Heisenberg was ...


2

In addition to the lend-lease reasons given by others, Japan had declared war on Britain at the same time as it declared war on the United States. Japan including the British Empire on the war declaration against the United States had to be reciprocated on the German side of the alliance with a declaration of war against the United States (since Britain and ...


2

There is a famous book/movie, "Run Silent, Run Deep", which involves a submarine duel based loosely on real events. Submarines can and will hunt and kill each other. In WWII torpedoes did not have active seekers, but relied on contact fusing, which means you would have to set the depth of the torpedo and make a direct hit. This would be very difficult to do ...


2

During WWII, did Congress show solidarity with the President? Not really. While Congress did show solidarity as far as the war effort was concerned (and that took some effort), internal politics were very much against the President. The 1942 midterm elections were the first to be held after the declaration of war. The Democrats barely won that ...


2

I have a friend whose father worked on the Manhattan Project. Scientists (and other workers) for secret projects such as the Manhattan Project were recruited by higher ups, through reputation, or word of mouth. They didn't just "volunteer," because they weren't told what these projects were, or what the needed qualifications were; only the higher ups knew ...


1

No, I think that the USA would have been a very powerful nation if the war had not happened because the factors that caused America being a superpower would have existed whether or not the war did. These factors could be its large population and landmass (US's landmass is far larger than Britain's, France's and Germany's combined). In addition, it was ...


1

Hitler was not in the practice of making "detailed contingency plans". He was more of "failure is not an option" type guy. If you read Speer's book, "Inside the Third Reich" you will find that it makes clear Hitler considered the pact with the Soviet Union an essential precursor to attacking Poland. The strategic situation demanded this for several reasons. ...


1

If you're referring specifically to deferments related to the Manhattan Project, this document is a fascinating read. It is apparently in response to arguments made in favor of giving technicians deferments based on security grounds, and instead argues that the hazards associated with the project put it in line with military service and forms a separate ...


1

I think the answer is no, and in any case there are a variety of material and strategic factors, like a set of common enemies, that would make it hard to say that ideology was a driving force in the alliance between Germany and Japan. Asking as someone from the US, you also have to keep in mind that our perspective is biased. It's easy to focus on the ...


1

In August 1939, while Japan and the USSR were skirmishing, Germany and the USSR signed a Non-Aggression Pact that allowed Stalin to put some more focus on Japan (among other things). By early 1941, Japan decided it was time to focus on securing its oil supply in Indonesia and so shifted to its Pacific strategy. Hence they signed a neutrality pact with the ...



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