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2

I think that the answer, such as it is, is to be found in Churchill’s own account, ‘Triumph and Tragedy’, published in 1953. Background: By early 1944, the British were concerned about Russian post-war policy in the East. British policy was based on the assumption that post-war cooperation with the USSR in Europe was possible and desirable. In January, ...


6

This is going by memory of various Osprey series books so take this for what you will... Throughout the war German troops wore field-grey uniforms. There were ceremonial versions but also ones for field use. Early on (1939 to about 1942) the Waffen SS had multi-colored camouflage smocks that they would wear over top of their basic uniforms. Eventually ...


-2

Allways, is said why not Spain join in the ww2. First of all, the principal history dates that road Spain to the Civil War: 1º. 1930-31: A transition of spain, similar to the modern 70s. After Spanish army resigned from the power the politicians moderated by the king started to deal Spain´s Future. King favour to reestablish the Constitutional monarchy ...


3

Treatment of snipers varied by country and time. The Germans and British both mixed solo snipers and snipers in squads (both dedicated and mixed). American snipers were poorly trained due to their quick deployment times and a lack of camouflage instruction. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sniper#World_War_II


4

Hitler wasn't interested in Turkey in itself, but let's analyse this option as a means to an end. Hitler went to war as he wanted "Lebensraum" for his people, literally, "living room" and for that he needed Russia, specifically the Ukraine and European Russia. Turkey did not offer this, it's a difficult country to move around with poor (at the time) ...


5

From the thesis linked by CGCampbell, American anti-tank doctrine was based around dealing with concentrated groups of German tanks on the offense, ie. a repeat of the invasion of France. To deal with this, dedicated anti-tank battalions were formed of tank destroyers: heavy anti-tank guns mounted on lightly-armored mobile platforms. The thesis cites Field ...


5

Most noteworthy would be Hess' flight to England in 1941, although that was not quite a defection.


-1

The US philosophy was not "send tanks to kill tanks" but instead specialized tank destroyer units. These were more mobile than the 88s that the Germans tended to use for AT purposes when not using tanks as tank killers. The idea is that the TD units would fire at the tanks from one position, zip off elsewhere and fire again using their speed. I don't ...


0

In April 1945, toward the end of the Nazi regime, Heinrich Himmler, the head of the Gestapo (Secret Police) and "SS" military units, left Berlin against Hitler's orders, and began negotiations with representatives of neutral Sweden, as an attempt to surrender Germany to only Britain and the United States, while allying with them against the Soviet Union. He ...


-3

As a matter of principle, the main weapon against a tank is another tank. Since, the German tanks were much superior to the US tanks (the Sherman), this obviously created a problem. About 3 months after D-Day troops started to get access to the M36 tank destroyer which the first weapon we had which was truly effective against Germany heavy armor. A more ...


0

An easy terminus post quem is October 31, 1939, which is when Molotov delivered a fine speech to the Supreme Soviet, containing the following lovely passage: In any case, under the ‘ideological’ flag there has now been started a war of even greater dimensions and fraught with even greater danger for the peoples of Europe and of the whole world. But ...


4

Well, I own the Lesser Soviet Encyclopedia (1958) and it still blames the both sides. Начавшись как агрессивная, империалистическая война между капиталистическими державами, Вторая мировая война для стран, противоборствующих Германии и её союзникам по фашистскому блоку, переросла впоследствии в справедливую, освободительную, антифашистскую войну. ...


1

The main reason you don't hear about German offensive victories on the Western Front after Normandy is that there aren't any. The Germans did have a localized offensive in Falaise to try and stop the Allied breakout, which resulted in about 225000 captured. Market-Garden was a defensive battle, in which they beat back an ill conceived operation. At most ...


3

I believe the next major operation on the Western front was the Allies' Operation Market Garden. The idea was to get across the Rhine in force using paratroopers followed up with armor, and thus hopefully win the war before Winter set in. This was a failure for the Allies, as they got themselves stretched a bit too far, and couldn't complete their main ...


16

I found May 1941 issues of the Izvestiya newspaper at libinfo.org, and the coverage of WWII at that time seems quite neutral. Regarding the questions, No official reaction of the Soviet authorities is mentioned at all, so I assume that if any sort of congratulations, condolescences or whatsoever were made, they were made nonpublicly. Yes, they did, and ...


4

Flakpanzers and other vehicle mounted anti-aircraft guns were frequently used against ground targets, and this was in fact noted explicitly by the Military Intelligence Service in their periodic Intelligence Bulletins. The following is an excerpt they report as originating from a German anti-aircraft platoon commander: c. Action During Attack The ...


0

The answer is yes. The Flakpanzer was armed with gun 3.7 cm Flak with armor piercing and hige explosive ammunition. The armor penetration was a when using dedicated Considerable ammunition. At 100 m distance it could penetrate 36 mm of 60 ° sloped armor, and at 800 m distance 24 mm correspondingly. This makes it a destructive weapon against infantry and ...


8

It looks like the later models of Flakpanzer IV (post Möbelwagen), including the Ostwind, were indeed designed to be able to shoot at ground targets, if need be. Though the Möbelwagen was intended to be a stopgap, it served the anti-aircraft platoons of the Panzer Divisions extremely well on the Western Front. Despite this, fewer than 300 were ...


1

No, it was not a distraction. Bypassing Stalingrad was not an option. The essential problem was that the Don River has a geography that would makes it difficult to establish supply lines across except in the vicinity of Stalingrad or much farther north, in the Kursk area. By controlling the Stalingrad area, the Sixth Army would theoretically have a base ...


1

Though there were many factors involved overall, there was a primary reason Germany didn't focus all their forces on the Caucasus region during Operation Barbarosa. That reason was the German leadership's unflinching confidence that the Russians would be defeated by Nazi forces in a single summer campaign. That is, by the end of summer the plan called for ...


7

Yes it was. While neutralizing or bypassing Stalingrad may been a good idea, capturing it was a colossal waste of resources. The original, achievable German plan did not feature crossing the Volga. The main German attack was in the opposite direction, to the south. The original goal of Case Blue was the capture of the Caucus oilfields which Germany ...


0

The correct answer was and is doctrine, if you look at german doctrine following ww1 and the revolutionary changes and forward thinking that they employed it's quite simple I.e any one in the military who has read achtung panzer by Heinz Guderian will note how it's a basis for some currant doctrine Hence later in the war the soviets caught up somewhat ...


1

The most comprehensive source for historical GDP per capita data is the Angus Maddison database. Here is the latest (Jan 2013) update: Excel file link. I extract from this Maddison database 1930-1950 GDP per capita data for the major combatants: Google spreadsheet. I include only France, Germany, Italy, the UK, the USSR, the USA, China, and Japan. No data ...


3

Were there any pilots that declined to carry out the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki? The answer is no. Then Lt. Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, who retired a Brigadier General, was put in charge of the newly formed 509th Composite Group of the Army Air Corps in September, 1944 (activated in December, 1944). He was a successful bomber pilot / leader and ...


10

Mafia aid to the United State's war effort was fairly limited. Probably most importantly, the mafia agreed to guarantee cooperation of New York dockworkers with the US Navy. The Navy was concerned both with avoiding strikes and guarding against potential saboteurs: The State of New York, Luciano and the Navy struck a deal in which Luciano guaranteed ...


5

This was part of the focus of Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century. He prefers to measure income inequality by looking at the share of the top decile/percentile/0.1% in the national income. In general, the story is that inequality decreased sharply throughout the Great Depression and WWII, and continued on a downward trend until the late ...


8

I know this is an old post but for some time I've wanted to revisit this topic, so I did some digging. It turns out OECD has a data table (2003. The World Economy: Historical Statistics (Paris: OECD)) that I've seen as a source in a paper from Berkeley and London School of Economics (http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/series/sfb-649-papers/2008-68/PDF/68.pdf). I'm ...


0

As Andrew Hodges, the author of the authoritative Turing biography The Enigma reports, "the main serious source for this type of claim comes from a talk given at Cambridge in 1993 by Sir Harry Hinsley, the official historian of British Intelligence in WW2": Now the question remains how much did it shorten the war, leaving aside the contribution made to ...


0

At the risk of answering yet another let's-bash-the-nazis type question... Whatever public claims he made, Hitler was always very big into destruction and, in fact, he "suggested" to the high command that Warsaw be bombed relatively early in the campaign which only lasted about three weeks. The high command refused to do this, having no military need to do ...


5

The very breaking of Enigma - by Turing et al using Bombe and also by pinching of the German Naval codebooks - gave the British a blind spot that did nearly cost them the war. That blind spot was that German Naval Intelligence had broken the British Merchant Marine codes in 1938-9 and was reading transmissions using that code into 1944. The British never ...


-6

The premise of the question is incorrect, in that the Enigma was never "cracked". If you read "The Hut Six Story" by Gordon Welchman, you will find that Enigma messages could only be translated when operators made errors such as using the same key repeatedly or repeated use of the same base codes ("discriminants"). When the Enigma was used correctly it was ...


11

Before asking this question, you could consult Wikipedia, which says: From the start, the Luftwaffe attacked civilian targets and columns of refugees along the roads to wreak havoc, disrupt communications, and target Polish morale. Apart from the victims of battles, the German forces (both SS and the regular Wehrmacht) murdered several thousand Polish ...


4

Re: Pierstorff's explanation, I haven't heard the biological weapons explanation before. As the primary motivation for Hitler's restraint, I don't think it's correct. From my understanding, bio weapons were rather primitive on all sides and the Japanese were actually the most advanced in this regard, not the Allies. [EDIT: I'm not sure where I first heard ...


2

At the time Hitler declared war on the U.S. there was no existing plan for how to win it at all. In fact, based on all the information I have studied, I have come to the opinion that the timing of the whole thing was more about the German military situation in Russia at that moment. I really don't think Hitler had any plans of a serious German war effort ...


1

Some units of the former Wehrmacht remained active, other units were newly formed for tasks such as mine-clearing and to assist the Western powers. There is an article in the German Wikipedia about those entities [link] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alliierte_Dienstgruppen#Aufl.C3.B6sung_der_Wehrmacht_bis_1947. But the Wehrmacht itself ceased to exist with ...


7

When it comes to tank numbers, and even many models - absolutely the French had superiority. However, the problem was primarily doctrinal. Where the Germans concentrated their armour in large motorised formations, designed to strike the enemies centre of gravity, the French dispersed their armour at the battalion level, so it could never really achieve the ...



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