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4

Vere rarely Horizontal bombing: In attacking shipping, the problems of inaccuracy were amplified by the fact that the target could be moving, and could change its direction between the time that the bombs were released and the time that they arrived. Successful strikes on marine vessels by horizontal bombers were extremely rare. An example of this ...


0

Bombs (or anything metal with sharp edges) naturally tend to whistle as they fall, however, in many cases they were designed to enhance the whistle to make it louder and more intense, the purpose being to terrify anyone in the vicinity of the target zone. The patent diagram below shows a typical design: The elliptical cutouts labeled I5 in the diagram are ...


0

When the 2ww ended the cold war started..... The UK, USA, France etc spend a lot of time and effect including using most of their best engineers to create weapons and defenses for the cold war. Germany was not allowed to create weapons; therefore all their best people worked in industry creating goods that could be sold. The US and UK also based lots of ...


2

There's three questions here. Was Japan a threat? If not, could it be a threat again? Would Japan surrender without the atomic bomb or invasion? These are aspects of the larger question, "was the atomic bomb and invasion necessary"? That's a big question with lots of moving parts that's still debated by professional historians, so it's good to reduce ...


2

I think the possible answer could fall into how to tread the OP's word "capable of maintaining the war".... Thus I would like to analyze between the "material capability side" and the "spiritual capability side". Material Capability Side From this source Data comparison ( From 1941 to 1945 ) The number of soldiers ( including civilian related ...


2

Agnes Smedley, Communist spy and triple agent, was writing much of the "reporting" about the Communist army in the field. So, an independent observer rating of less than zero. She also helped the Communists by suckering Gen. Smedley to send them arms. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/venona/dece_smedley.html


2

The uranium-based gun design was the fundamental approach of the project from the beginning. The "fat man" design used plutonium-239, a substance much easier to produce than uranium-235, but requiring a much more complicated implosion type warhead. It was not clear until 1944 that the implosion design would even work. John von Neumann essentially invented ...


12

Japan was not really capable of "maintaining war" by mid-1945. The problem was that it was unwilling to "make peace" on anything like reasonable terms. If the Allies had wanted a stop to the fighting, one possibility might have been a "cease fire in place." That would leave the Allies in possession of the Philippines, and Iwo Jima and Okinawa, but it would ...


2

I think you are formulating the debate in the wrong terms. There were Japanese who correctly believed that the war was lost, nukes or no nukes. There also were Japanese, who believed that an honorable settlement was still possible, through some far fetched pipe dream scheme like Soviet mediation or Kamikaze pilot wild successes. Nukes gave the former a ...


12

The answer to this question is yes, Japan was capable of maintaining the war at the time and likely would have done so. However, Japan was incapable of conducting meaningful offensive operations by then. So, in a sense they couldn't have hurt the U.S. but they would have hurt many others. U.S. General Curtis LeMay was responsible for implementing the ...


25

To simply say that they wanted to try out different types is to miss the point that weapons-grade uranium and plutonium have fundamentally different production methods and lend themselves to very different weapon designs. Uranium bombs require a very high percentage of the isotope U-235, which is only present in miniscule quantities in natural uranium. ...


27

No. Japan had almost no capability to continue waging war. In fact, strangled by the American blockade, Japan was tottering on the brink of collapse. Experts both then and since believed that the combined pressure of the Soviet entry, the relentless blockade (and usually, the conventional aerial bombardment campaign) would have compelled Japan to surrender. ...


8

Wikipedia answers this rather well. Basically, a plutonium bomb is more complicated than a uranium bomb. However, weapon-grade plutonium is also easier to obtain than weapon-grade uranium, since the plutonium can be separated chemically from burnt nuclear reactor fuel, whereas uranium needs to be enriched in a costly process. In fact, all of the enriched ...


5

Nuclear bomb making was a new endeavor and it was not clear which approach would be successful - cheaper, faster, more powerful, smaller, more reliable &c &c. They really had to try all feasible approaches before settling on one.


4

You can never be sure that a naval blockade will indeed lead to a national collapse. E.g., Britain did not surrender. Why do you think Japan would have? You must also remember the international situation: what if the SU would land in Japan and occupy it? By mid-1945 is was already a fact that, despite numerous agreements and promises of free elections, SU ...


0

"Creating a battle plan that depends on the enemy's cooperation is a beginner's mistake." They did not have any shortage of such mistakes. They fought Midway with the expectation that the US carriers wouldn't show up until they took the island. That's why their entire fleet was armed with land attack armaments at the time the USN showed up, and Nagumo ...


0

Not Nazism, but I would point you to a man called Jakob Meckel, who was the founding instructor of the Japanese Army War College. Literally all of the Japanese Army high command then was his student, or his student's student, or so on. Their army high command was far more drawn to Prussia and Germany culturally than they were to the United States or ...


0

I'd like to start by saying that, at least up until 1942, neither of the two openly advocated racism against any ethnic or religious group. Nor do we find racism to be a salient feature in the society of the two countries at the time. Rather, much of the horrendous acts of World War 2 were done out of a mentality shaped by bigotry. It was generally believed ...


9

Midway was a distraction at a critical moment in the battle, but this more due to luck than anything else. If you replay the Battle Of Midway over again, it is unlikely it would have turned out that way again. Despite the US advantage of surprise and Japanese overconfidence, so much of the battle was down to luck. Midway made three important (I won't say ...


0

In many ways it was an alliance based on "my enemies enemy is my friend" After the Washington Naval Treaty Japan was very unhappy with the manner in which she was treated. In particular the UK was already distancing itself; having been strong allies in the Great War we were prepared to sacrifice this for a convenient political solution that saved us money ...


3

There are several points to consider here: Firstly - most warships (capital - i.e. Battleships, Battle cruisers and Heavy cruisers had multiple decks. The first deck usually was meant to remove the ballistic and armour piercing caps (ballistic was thin light metal to allow the projectile to pass through the atmosphere more easily - meaning a higher ...


5

The direct military effect of the land based bombers was zero, as they did not inflict a single hit on the Japanese fleet in their multiple sorties. Level bombing was very ineffective during the entire war in hitting Japanese ships in motion, and none of the planes on Midway were trained in the dive-bombing attacks that would prove crucial. The distraction ...


6

First of all, largest caliber AA guns are generally used for far-distance defense by producing air bursts near the planes, and medium and small caliber AA gun supported the near-distance deference. In WWII 5" AA gun shoot down 30% of enemy planes, similar to the percentage of 20mm Oerlikon and 40mm Bofors. 5" gun is effective to deal with kamikaze, but it is ...


51

Also, correct me if I'm wrong but the heavy AA guns appear like they can't point down over the deck. They can only point upwards or parallel to the surface, but not down at the surface. This assumption is wrong. The US Mark 12 5"/38 caliber dual purpose (surface and aircraft) mount was the primary heavy AA armament facing kamikazes. It was mounted on ...


2

Best way of collapsing USSR in WW2 (closest to collapse) would be if Japan attacked USSR during battle for Moscow or Stalingrad, opening second front from Manchuria. When Soviet spy Richard Sorge find out in mid-september 41 about no imminent plans of attack of USSR, it allowed Stalin to move divisions from Siberia (used and trained to winter warfare) to ...


0

Another reason for attacking Stalingrad was that Japanese considered attacking Russia (opening the second front) if Germany could cross river Volga (or take Moscow). Sorry I don't remember the source.


6

As for strategy, in general going for the side of an American WWII capital warship would probably not be the most effective approach. During WWI the US pioneered an approach to warship armoring popularly titled All or Nothing. The idea was that any armor incapable of stopping a capital ship shell or torpedo/mine from damaging a battle-critical component ...


6

Yes, the USS Enterprise was hit near the waterline in by a Kamikaze in1945 and it stuck in the side until broken up by wave action. From the page "Kamikaze Damage to US and British Carriers". The side of a major ship was much more resistant than the wooden flight deck of US carriers, and the deck was also a better target due to the fuel and bombs that ...


8

From the wikipedia article of the Normandy landings "Four sites were considered for the landings: Brittany, the Cotentin Peninsula, Normandy, and Pas de Calais. As Brittany and Cotentin are peninsulas, it would have been possible for the Germans to cut off the Allied advance at a relatively narrow isthmus, so these sites were rejected.[19] As the Pas de ...


14

I believe that your textbook used an inappropriate level of precision in the number 52. Even if there were documents with such a classification of their victims, using them would concede that Nazi definitions were an useful guide to their killings and persecutions. In the 1920s and early 1930s, the nazis were engaged in paramilitary violence which might be ...


23

Across the country, meaning only looking at victims in Germany and not the Nazi occupied territories, these were mainly Socialists, Jews, gypsies, certain religious groups, homosexuals, mentally handicapped people, pastors and priests who publicly voiced their resentment of the Nazis, German women who had a relationship with anyone deemed worthless by the ...


1

The Japanese primary strategy was to create an East-Asia Prosperity sphere of influence, including SE Asia, parts of China and Indonesia. This also fit in with their desperation for resources, especially oil (see, for instance, the book The Prize by Daniel Yergin). SE Asia also had bauxite for Aluminum refining (as did the Caroline Islands, see Aluminum ...


2

I think your question is impossible to answer because each side held some of their prisoners under conditions which bordered on a release. The usual reason was to use the prisoners for their own war effort, not charity. The US had Operation Paperclip which captured scientists like Wernher von Braun. It is a judgement call when captivity turned into a job ...


0

UK you see was prepared for the ravages of the incoming war. Proper policymaking during war times prevented UK from the ravages the axis occupied countries experienced. UK also had an advantage of having occupied a country like India from where they supplied food to both the civilians & the soldiers however this was also the reason of massive food ...


41

There wasn't a lack of food in the UK, not in the sense that people weren't getting enough to eat or were suffering malnutrition. What there was is a lack of variety of food. Anything which was imported (citrus, tropical fruits, tea, coffee, sugar), expensive (meat) or important to the war effort (fats, meat, canned anything) would be rationed. Rationing ...


6

There are international agreements on the definition of POW dating back to the Lieber Code declared by Lincoln in 1862 Art. 49. A prisoner of war is a public enemy armed or attached to the hostile army for active aid, who has fallen into the hands of the captor, either fighting or wounded, on the field or in the hospital, by individual ...


-8

Rationing and ultimately food "shortages" are an inevitable consequence of command economies. What happens is that the government orders that certain goods must be sold at a particular prices. They do this so that THEY, meaning the government need only pay low amount to feed their soldiers. This process is contagious, because if you just fix the price of, ...


11

UK, like most other developed (and not so developed) countries, does not produce all food that it consumes. Some food is imported in most cases. In the case of UK during WW2 much of the food was imported. As the war started, a) the oceans became dangerous. Because of the German cruisers and submarines. b) the shipping capacities were needed for other ...


7

Kindly allow me to update completely. As a starter, I being a native speaker, kindly be reminded it would sound very strange when the OP says "Kantai Kessen, the Japanese naval strategy for a Pacific war" ( Excluding the fact that the Wiki was updated by someone ). The reason is, simply, in term of the usage of the word. Kantai Kessen simply denotes the one ...


-2

Hitler went to war as he wanted "Lebensraum" for his people, literally, "living room" and for that he needed Russia, specifically the Ukraine and European Russia Maybe this is true, maybe he thought he needed Russia for its people but: Russia is rather cold. At least colder than Germany. In the "Mein Kampf" book he mentions that germanic people are not ...


23

The Japanese navy had a fundamental misunderstanding of the American navy, in large part because of its experience with other, European navies such as those of Russia and Britain. And perhaps they were confused by America's War Plan Orange," which preached similar doctrine, but was more "honored in the breach than the observance." In the 1905 war with ...


-1

One clarification. Spain was not invaded by the Nazis because it was already Nazi. Between WWI and WWI the Spanish Civil Was happened. It was the communists against the royal crown. The communist defeated the royals (catholics, of course) and created the Spanish Republic. And when the communist were about to give the final blow to the royals, Franco, a ...


24

Many people seem to be confused that this was a plan developed during or just prior to WWII to defend the home islands, this is not true. Kantai Kessen was developed and adopted after the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905) and well before the US entered WWII (1941). With that in mind, answers must take into account the interwar situation and mindsets of the ...


0

During the (1944) battle of Warsaw, as reported in "Rising 44", when Polish prisoners were captured, the German General von dem Bach-Zalewsi told his men to treat them "as if they were British." In World War II, the Germans reserved their best POW treatment for captured men from America, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.


4

There was large difference between Eastern and Western fronts. Generally, Western POW (British, American, French, German) were treated by their western captors according to the "laws of war", that is Geneva conventions. Of course, there were many exceptions, but as a rule they were treated decently. This does not apply to the Soviet POW captured by the ...


3

I doubt that a generalized answer is possible. Contrary to myth, nazis were not efficient. Many of their policies were made up as they went along. POW camps, concentration camps, and forced labor camps were not the same, but there were similarities in the policies. That being said: I recall reading about a Dutch prisoner in a forced labor camp who ran ...


3

If you are asking about people who were prisoners of the Germans, then British and Americans did the best, although this was certainly no joyride. According to Wikipedia, German prisoners in the hands of Britain were least likely to die. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied_war_crimes_during_World_War_II#Comparative_death_rates_of_POWs


2

Your map is misleading, because of the time period illustrated. Certainly following the destruction of Army Group Centre (Operation Bagration, the purple offensive on yor map) in July and August of 1944 the absolute need for a second front had reduced. However the second front had already been established weeks earlier, tying down considerable German forces ...


4

You're looking at few different questions. 1) Why did Franco not bring Spain into the war voluntarily in 1939-40? a) Popular war fatigue: the Spanish people had been put through three years of a bloody fratricidal war. Remember, aerial bombardment of non-military targets such as capital cities was a brand-new military technique, and it was terrifying. ...


3

Depends on the country. In occupied Norway there were several factors. Many schools became barracs for german soldiers or used for other purposes by the occupiers. There were attempts to "nazify" the schools (as well as the church and the organizations for various sports), which ended with the arrest and deportation of many teachers. These were replaced ...



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