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comment Were the Huns and Mongols at one point rivals?
@Greg: They probably did not - that looks more like an assumed linguistic area (including the ancestors of modern Hungarian - not related to the Huns) which probably would have been split into small groups like the Germanic speakers, but with no written records to indicate what was where.
comment After the fall of Constantinople, were the Christians who lived in the Ottoman Empire treated fairly?
Dev┼čirme or blood tribute involved kidnapping young Christian boys, forcibly converting them to Islam and then enrolling them in the Janissary military or in Ottoman administration.
comment Were there any Chinese expeditions to explore the world? If not, why not?
It depends what you mean by "of that region" and when. It is generally thought that the Austronesians started in Taiwan (or perhaps Malaya), eventually reaching Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand across the Pacific, and Madagascar across the Indian Ocean.
comment What were the conditions of joining or leaving the Holy Roman Empire?
The previous line to your quote was "Although the Emperor was lord of the world, the French king was not subject to him in law or in fact" which describes the position where the Holy Roman Emperor only had power where he had the force of arms.
comment Why didn't “Europe” support the Byzantine Empire against the Turks?
A key point was that the European Christian land forces had lost both the 1444 Battle of Varna and the 1448 Battle of Kosovo and so could not reach a Constantinople which had destroyed itself and its resources in four civil wars in the 14th century, even after the 1261 reconquest of the city from the Latins.
comment Did the rebels in the War of American Independence acknowledge the English Civil War rebels as an influence on their thinking?
They were more likely to point to the Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights several decades after the English Commonwealth
comment Are former British colonies better off now compared to other colonies and why
I think it is difficult to argue Singapore had an established economy before the British got there in any substantial sense. Under British rule its population jumped from 1,000 in 1819 to 10,000 in 1825 to 100,000 in 1869.
comment Why did the Moors invade the Iberian peninsula?
It does seem that the Muslim conquest of Iberia started with a raid that was unexpectedly successful.
comment Was Alexander the Great ever an emperor?
As ruler of the Persian empire he was "King of Kings", but he was more than this as he had previously taken the Egyptian empire where he was proclaimed "master of the Universe"
comment Why was Britain willing to return Hong Kong but not Gibraltar?
The story is that Margaret Thatcher was walked down Boundary Street and asked how it might be defended as a new frontier against the biggest country in the world.
comment What are some examples of clauses against unifications in peace treaties?
See for example - my quote appears on page 39 of the pdf i.e. page 377 of the book it is scanned from: Chalmers, George, A collection of treaties between Great Britain and other powers.
comment Why was the number of U.S. Representatives limited?
The British House of Commons chamber has seats for 427 of the 650 Members of Parliament. Most of the time they do not all turn up at the same moment except to vote and that does not require sitting down.
comment Marbury vs Madison, what about other midnight judges?
You can read the ruling at… though the key point is that he/they ruled that Section 13 of the Judiciary Act passed by Congress in 1789, which authorized the Supreme Court to issue such a writ of mandamus, was unconstitutional as it extended the powers of the Court beyond those specified in the Constitution.
comment US Army stations in France during World war 2
Équemauville (near Honfleur and Le Havre) would have been in the British/Canadian area of operations in August 1944, while Équeurdreville (near Cherbourg) would have been in the US area. It may also depend on timing
comment Did Mao want to convert written Chinese into an alphabetical system?
@T.E.D.: One such source would be Pao-chien Tseng's China chapter of "Language Policy and National Unity" (1985) edited by William R. Beer and James E. Jacob ISBN 978-0865980587 but there are many others
comment Why did the the East-Pakistanis oppose Urdu as their national language while Indians accepted Hindi as theirs?
Begali is the majority language in Bangladesh and West Bengal and is mutually intelligible across the India-Bangladesh border (like Punjabi across the India-Pakistan border). Sylheti has a different vocabulary, phonology and (until 1971) script. The lack of mutual intelligibility has been particularly noted in areas of Sylheti migration such as the east-end of London, especially among older migrants.
comment Why did the the East-Pakistanis oppose Urdu as their national language while Indians accepted Hindi as theirs?
Sylheti and the others are in fact different languages to Bengali (though with a common ancestry). They are regarded as dialects for political reasons: if one of the reasons for the existence of Bangladesh was the use of Bengali, then it is convenient to believe that the other languages used in Bangladesh are types of Bengali.
comment Why do some countries call Germany “Alman” too?
It is worth noting that while Italian uses Germania for the country, it uses tedesco (cognate with deutch) as the adjective and for a German person. Meanwhile English uses Dutch as the adjective for a neighbouring country.
comment Is Taiwan always a part of People's Republic of China?
The "People's Republic of China" was founded in 1949. Its government in Beijing has at all times since then claimed to be the legitimate government of all of China (denied by the "Republic of China" government in Taipei) and that Taiwan is part of China (not denied by the government in Taipei). The government in Beijing has not exercised rule over Taiwan since the founding of the People's Republic of China.
comment How did British queens get power over kings despite a male-dominant society?
Philip of Spain (Mary Tudor's husband) and William of Orange (Mary Stuart's husband) were each King of England etc. where their wives were the heirs, while George of Denmark, Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Philip of Greece were not, so it is difficult to say that there has been a consistent rule.