3 Spelling of Cixi
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The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over the relatively small area represented by the main Japanese islands, well connected by sea routes, putting "everyone on the same page." Finally, when initiatives were undertaken by various parties, the effect of those initiatives was spread out over fewer people than in China (Japan's population was only one-fifth of China's), thereby having greater impact. The result was a self-reinforcing virtuous circle.

Such a circle never got going in China (at least not in the 19th century). The Emperor Kuang Hsu tried to institute a series of reforms, but was defeated by his own aunt, the Dowager CuxiEmpress Dowager Cixi, and warlords associated with her. This meant that the Chinese government was never fully centralized (until the time of Mao Zedong, over fifty years later). China is a much larger country physically than Japan, with major communications problems, so any resolutions agreed to by the central government were not fully transmitted to much of the country. And there were so many people in China (some fraction of one billion through most of the 19th and 20th centuries), that whatever was accomplished affected a relatively small part of the population.

Many of China's problems persist until this day. "Modern" China probably consists of about 100-150 million people about the same (finally!) as modern Japan. But there are 1.2-1.3 billion people behind this group, most of them in a very backward situation, pulling down the Chinese "average." So while Chinese GDP is now a bit larger than Japan's (in the aggregate), the per capital GDP is still much lower.

The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over the relatively small area represented by the main Japanese islands, well connected by sea routes, putting "everyone on the same page." Finally, when initiatives were undertaken by various parties, the effect of those initiatives was spread out over fewer people than in China (Japan's population was only one-fifth of China's), thereby having greater impact. The result was a self-reinforcing virtuous circle.

Such a circle never got going in China (at least not in the 19th century). The Emperor Kuang Hsu tried to institute a series of reforms, but was defeated by his own aunt, the Dowager Cuxi, and warlords associated with her. This meant that the Chinese government was never fully centralized (until the time of Mao Zedong, over fifty years later). China is a much larger country physically than Japan, with major communications problems, so any resolutions agreed to by the central government were not fully transmitted to much of the country. And there were so many people in China (some fraction of one billion through most of the 19th and 20th centuries), that whatever was accomplished affected a relatively small part of the population.

Many of China's problems persist until this day. "Modern" China probably consists of about 100-150 million people about the same (finally!) as modern Japan. But there are 1.2-1.3 billion people behind this group, most of them in a very backward situation, pulling down the Chinese "average." So while Chinese GDP is now a bit larger than Japan's (in the aggregate), the per capital GDP is still much lower.

The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over the relatively small area represented by the main Japanese islands, well connected by sea routes, putting "everyone on the same page." Finally, when initiatives were undertaken by various parties, the effect of those initiatives was spread out over fewer people than in China (Japan's population was only one-fifth of China's), thereby having greater impact. The result was a self-reinforcing virtuous circle.

Such a circle never got going in China (at least not in the 19th century). The Emperor Kuang Hsu tried to institute a series of reforms, but was defeated by his own aunt, the Empress Dowager Cixi, and warlords associated with her. This meant that the Chinese government was never fully centralized (until the time of Mao Zedong, over fifty years later). China is a much larger country physically than Japan, with major communications problems, so any resolutions agreed to by the central government were not fully transmitted to much of the country. And there were so many people in China (some fraction of one billion through most of the 19th and 20th centuries), that whatever was accomplished affected a relatively small part of the population.

Many of China's problems persist until this day. "Modern" China probably consists of about 100-150 million people about the same (finally!) as modern Japan. But there are 1.2-1.3 billion people behind this group, most of them in a very backward situation, pulling down the Chinese "average." So while Chinese GDP is now a bit larger than Japan's (in the aggregate), the per capital GDP is still much lower.

2 added 414 characters in body
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The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over the relatively small area represented by the main Japanese islands, well connected by sea routsroutes, putting "everyone on the same page." Finally, when initiatives were undertaken by various parties, the effect of those initiatives was spread out over fewer people than in China (Japan's population was only one-fifth of China's), thereby having greater impact. The result was a self-reinforcing virtuous circle.

Such a circle never got going in China (at least not in the 19th century). The Emperor Kuang Hsu tried to institute a series of reforms, but was defeated by his own aunt, the Dowager Cuxi, and warlords associated with her, meaning. This meant that the Chinese government was never fully centralized (until the time of Mao Zedong, over fifty years later). China is a much larger country physically than Japan, with major communications problems, so any resolutions agreed to by the central government were not fully transmitted to much of the country. And there were so many people in China (some fraction of one billion through most of the 19th and 20th centuries), that whatever was accomplished affected a relatively small part of the population.

Many of China's problems persist until this day. "Modern" China probably consists of about 100-150 million people about the same (finally!) as modern Japan. But there are 1.2-1.3 billion people behind this group, most of them in a very backward situation, pulling down the Chinese "average." So while Chinese GDP is now a bit larger than Japan's (in the aggregate), the per capital GDP is still much lower.

The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over the relatively small area represented by the main Japanese islands, well connected by sea routs, putting "everyone on the same page." Finally, when initiatives were undertaken by various parties, the effect of those initiatives was spread out over fewer people than in China (Japan's population was only one-fifth of China's), thereby having greater impact. The result was a self-reinforcing virtuous circle.

Such a circle never got going in China (at least not in the 19th century). The Emperor Kuang Hsu tried to institute a series of reforms, but was defeated by his own aunt, the Dowager Cuxi, and warlords associated with her, meaning that the Chinese government was never fully centralized (until the time of Mao Zedong, over fifty years later). China is a much larger country physically than Japan, with major communications problems, so any resolutions agreed to by the central government were not fully transmitted to much of the country. And there were so many people in China (some fraction of one billion through most of the 19th and 20th centuries), that whatever was accomplished affected a relatively small part of the population.

The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over the relatively small area represented by the main Japanese islands, well connected by sea routes, putting "everyone on the same page." Finally, when initiatives were undertaken by various parties, the effect of those initiatives was spread out over fewer people than in China (Japan's population was only one-fifth of China's), thereby having greater impact. The result was a self-reinforcing virtuous circle.

Such a circle never got going in China (at least not in the 19th century). The Emperor Kuang Hsu tried to institute a series of reforms, but was defeated by his own aunt, the Dowager Cuxi, and warlords associated with her. This meant that the Chinese government was never fully centralized (until the time of Mao Zedong, over fifty years later). China is a much larger country physically than Japan, with major communications problems, so any resolutions agreed to by the central government were not fully transmitted to much of the country. And there were so many people in China (some fraction of one billion through most of the 19th and 20th centuries), that whatever was accomplished affected a relatively small part of the population.

Many of China's problems persist until this day. "Modern" China probably consists of about 100-150 million people about the same (finally!) as modern Japan. But there are 1.2-1.3 billion people behind this group, most of them in a very backward situation, pulling down the Chinese "average." So while Chinese GDP is now a bit larger than Japan's (in the aggregate), the per capital GDP is still much lower.

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The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over the relatively small area represented by the main Japanese islands, well connected by sea routs, putting "everyone on the same page." Finally, when initiatives were undertaken by various parties, the effect of those initiatives was spread out over fewer people than in China (Japan's population was only one-fifth of China's), thereby having greater impact. The result was a self-reinforcing virtuous circle.

Such a circle never got going in China (at least not in the 19th century). The Emperor Kuang Hsu tried to institute a series of reforms, but was defeated by his own aunt, the Dowager Cuxi, and warlords associated with her, meaning that the Chinese government was never fully centralized (until the time of Mao Zedong, over fifty years later). China is a much larger country physically than Japan, with major communications problems, so any resolutions agreed to by the central government were not fully transmitted to much of the country. And there were so many people in China (some fraction of one billion through most of the 19th and 20th centuries), that whatever was accomplished affected a relatively small part of the population.