2 link Muladi
source | link

Legally all the Muslims were treated identically, at least on paper, as only non-Muslims had jizya imposed on them.

However the different Islamic groups in medieval Iberia came from different ethno-cultural backgrounds, and the three principal groups Arabs, Berbers, and MuladiMuladi (native iberian muslims) formed three distinct communities that contributed to the (relatively) cosmopolitan nature of Andalusi society. Arabs formed the elite of Al-Andalus, at least until the Almoravid conquest of Islamic Iberia by ethnic Berbers, with non-Arab muslims constituting second-class citizens. However due the homogenising effect of Arabic increasingly becoming the lingua franca of Islamic (replacing Romance dialects), by about 1100 the ethnic distinctions between muslim Iberians became much more blurred and correspondingly the social hierarchy between ethnic Arabs, and non-Arab muslims became blurred [1].

Legally all the Muslims were treated identically, at least on paper, as only non-Muslims had jizya imposed on them.

However the different Islamic groups in medieval Iberia came from different ethno-cultural backgrounds, and the three principal groups Arabs, Berbers, and Muladi (native iberian muslims) formed three distinct communities that contributed to the (relatively) cosmopolitan nature of Andalusi society. Arabs formed the elite of Al-Andalus, at least until the Almoravid conquest of Islamic Iberia by ethnic Berbers, with non-Arab muslims constituting second-class citizens. However due the homogenising effect of Arabic increasingly becoming the lingua franca of Islamic (replacing Romance dialects), by about 1100 the ethnic distinctions between muslim Iberians became much more blurred and correspondingly the social hierarchy between ethnic Arabs, and non-Arab muslims became blurred [1].

Legally all the Muslims were treated identically, at least on paper, as only non-Muslims had jizya imposed on them.

However the different Islamic groups in medieval Iberia came from different ethno-cultural backgrounds, and the three principal groups Arabs, Berbers, and Muladi (native iberian muslims) formed three distinct communities that contributed to the (relatively) cosmopolitan nature of Andalusi society. Arabs formed the elite of Al-Andalus, at least until the Almoravid conquest of Islamic Iberia by ethnic Berbers, with non-Arab muslims constituting second-class citizens. However due the homogenising effect of Arabic increasingly becoming the lingua franca of Islamic (replacing Romance dialects), by about 1100 the ethnic distinctions between muslim Iberians became much more blurred and correspondingly the social hierarchy between ethnic Arabs, and non-Arab muslims became blurred [1].

1
source | link

Legally all the Muslims were treated identically, at least on paper, as only non-Muslims had jizya imposed on them.

However the different Islamic groups in medieval Iberia came from different ethno-cultural backgrounds, and the three principal groups Arabs, Berbers, and Muladi (native iberian muslims) formed three distinct communities that contributed to the (relatively) cosmopolitan nature of Andalusi society. Arabs formed the elite of Al-Andalus, at least until the Almoravid conquest of Islamic Iberia by ethnic Berbers, with non-Arab muslims constituting second-class citizens. However due the homogenising effect of Arabic increasingly becoming the lingua franca of Islamic (replacing Romance dialects), by about 1100 the ethnic distinctions between muslim Iberians became much more blurred and correspondingly the social hierarchy between ethnic Arabs, and non-Arab muslims became blurred [1].