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SHORT ANSWER

This would most likely be the Mexcian - American War (1846-48). In particular, there is an 1847 picture showing what may be the first amputation photographed.


DETAILS

Although the first photo dates back to 1826 or 1827 (see picture here), it took many years to solve the problem of the long exposure time needed (up to 8 hours for early photos). By 1841 this had been cut considerably (but was still at least one minute), and portraiture and photos of monuments started to become popular. By the late 1840s photographers started to 'get out and about'

villages and towns were served by traveling photographers who had fitted up wagons as studios

It would appear that it was from this time that the first major historical event (for all the problems of this definition) was recorded: the Mexcian - American war.

Mex Am Photograph of an amputation on April 18, 1847 during the Mexican-American War of Sergeant Antonio Bustos by Belgian surgeon Pedro Vander Linden (who is holding the leg) (via Wikimedia)

This photo may well also be the first one of an amputation. Other photographs of the Mexican American war can be found here, all using daguerreotype photography.

Maybe the next 'major historical event' to photographed was the Great Exhibition in London in 1851. The picture below used a different photographic process (Calotype).

Great Ex Mounted Calotype depicting a scene from the Great Exhibition of 1851. William Henry Fox Talbot [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

If we accept a local event, then this photograph of a water jousting event in 1842 predates the others.

Lyon On Pinterest A large crowd watching a water jousting event on the Saône River in Lyon, France, 1842. Possibly the earliest photograph taken of a sporting event.

Although the first photo dates back to 1826 or 1827 (see picture here), it took many years to solve the problem of the long exposure time needed (up to 8 hours for early photos). By 1841 this had been cut considerably (but was still at least one minute), and portraiture and photos of monuments started to become popular. By the late 1840s photographers started to 'get out and about'

villages and towns were served by traveling photographers who had fitted up wagons as studios

It would appear that it was from this time that the first major historical event (for all the problems of this definition) was recorded: the Mexcian - American war.

Mex Am Photograph of an amputation on April 18, 1847 during the Mexican-American War of Sergeant Antonio Bustos by Belgian surgeon Pedro Vander Linden (who is holding the leg) (via Wikimedia)

This photo may well also be the first one of an amputation. Other photographs of the Mexican American war can be found here, all using daguerreotype photography.

Maybe the next 'major historical event' to photographed was the Great Exhibition in London in 1851. The picture below used a different photographic process (Calotype).

Great Ex Mounted Calotype depicting a scene from the Great Exhibition of 1851. William Henry Fox Talbot [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

If we accept a local event, then this photograph of a water jousting event in 1842 predates the others.

Lyon On Pinterest A large crowd watching a water jousting event on the Saône River in Lyon, France, 1842. Possibly the earliest photograph taken of a sporting event.

SHORT ANSWER

This would most likely be the Mexcian - American War (1846-48). In particular, there is an 1847 picture showing what may be the first amputation photographed.


DETAILS

Although the first photo dates back to 1826 or 1827 (see picture here), it took many years to solve the problem of the long exposure time needed (up to 8 hours for early photos). By 1841 this had been cut considerably (but was still at least one minute), and portraiture and photos of monuments started to become popular. By the late 1840s photographers started to 'get out and about'

villages and towns were served by traveling photographers who had fitted up wagons as studios

It would appear that it was from this time that the first major historical event (for all the problems of this definition) was recorded: the Mexcian - American war.

Mex Am Photograph of an amputation on April 18, 1847 during the Mexican-American War of Sergeant Antonio Bustos by Belgian surgeon Pedro Vander Linden (who is holding the leg) (via Wikimedia)

This photo may well also be the first one of an amputation. Other photographs of the Mexican American war can be found here, all using daguerreotype photography.

Maybe the next 'major historical event' to photographed was the Great Exhibition in London in 1851. The picture below used a different photographic process (Calotype).

Great Ex Mounted Calotype depicting a scene from the Great Exhibition of 1851. William Henry Fox Talbot [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

If we accept a local event, then this photograph of a water jousting event in 1842 predates the others.

Lyon On Pinterest A large crowd watching a water jousting event on the Saône River in Lyon, France, 1842. Possibly the earliest photograph taken of a sporting event.

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source | link

Although the first photo dates back to 1826 or 1827 (see picture here), it took many years to solve the problem of the long exposure time needed (up to 8 hours for early photos). By 1841 this had been cut considerably (but was still at least one minute), and portraiture and photos of monuments started to become popular. By the late 1840s photographers started to 'get out and about'

villages and towns were served by traveling photographers who had fitted up wagons as studios

It would appear that it was from this time that the first major historical event (for all the problems of this definition) was recorded: the Mexcian - American war.

Mex Am Photograph of an amputation on April 18, 1847 during the Mexican-American War of Sergeant Antonio Bustos by Belgian surgeon Pedro Vander Linden (who is holding the leg) (via Wikimedia)

This photo may well also be the first one of an amputation. Other photographs of the Mexican American war can be found here, all using daguerreotype photography.

Maybe the next 'major historical event' to photographed was the Great Exhibition in London in 1851. The picture below used a different photographic process (Calotype).

Great Ex Mounted Calotype depicting a scene from the Great Exhibition of 1851. William Henry Fox Talbot [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

If we accept a local event, then this photograph of a water jousting event in 1842 predates the others.

Lyon On Pinterest A large crowd watching a water jousting event on the Saône River in Lyon, France, 1842. Possibly the earliest photograph taken of a sporting event.