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We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I (died 238 AD) who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher ThemistiusThemistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of SuidasSuidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

The Wikipedia entry on Arethas expands on the bishop's role in preserving Meditations:

Arethas admits to holding the work in high regard in letters to the Byzantine emperor Leo VI the WiseLeo VI the Wise and in his comments to Lucian and Dio Chrysostom'. Arethas is credited with reintroducing the Meditations to public discourse.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time PlanudesPlanudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given here is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

enter image description here

Xylander's Latin translation (from Greek), published by Conrad Gessner

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I (died 238 AD) who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher Themistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of Suidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

The Wikipedia entry on Arethas expands on the bishop's role in preserving Meditations:

Arethas admits to holding the work in high regard in letters to the Byzantine emperor Leo VI the Wise and in his comments to Lucian and Dio Chrysostom'. Arethas is credited with reintroducing the Meditations to public discourse.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given here is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

enter image description here

Xylander's Latin translation (from Greek), published by Conrad Gessner

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I (died 238 AD) who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher Themistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of Suidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

The Wikipedia entry on Arethas expands on the bishop's role in preserving Meditations:

Arethas admits to holding the work in high regard in letters to the Byzantine emperor Leo VI the Wise and in his comments to Lucian and Dio Chrysostom'. Arethas is credited with reintroducing the Meditations to public discourse.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given here is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

enter image description here

Xylander's Latin translation (from Greek), published by Conrad Gessner

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

4 added text, added sources, added image
source | link

We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I (died 238 AD) who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher Themistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of Suidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

The Wikipedia entry on Arethas expands on the bishop's role in preserving Meditations:

Arethas admits to holding the work in high regard in letters to the Byzantine emperor Leo VI the Wise and in his comments to Lucian and Dio Chrysostom'. Arethas is credited with reintroducing the Meditations to public discourse.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given here is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

enter image description here

Xylander's Latin translation (from Greek), published by Conrad Gessner

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher Themistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of Suidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

The Wikipedia entry on Arethas expands on the bishop's role in preserving Meditations:

Arethas admits to holding the work in high regard in letters to the Byzantine emperor Leo VI the Wise and in his comments to Lucian and Dio Chrysostom'. Arethas is credited with reintroducing the Meditations to public discourse.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I (died 238 AD) who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher Themistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of Suidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

The Wikipedia entry on Arethas expands on the bishop's role in preserving Meditations:

Arethas admits to holding the work in high regard in letters to the Byzantine emperor Leo VI the Wise and in his comments to Lucian and Dio Chrysostom'. Arethas is credited with reintroducing the Meditations to public discourse.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given here is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

enter image description here

Xylander's Latin translation (from Greek), published by Conrad Gessner

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

3 added text, added links
source | link

We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher Themistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of Suidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

The Wikipedia entry on Arethas expands on the bishop's role in preserving Meditations:

Arethas admits to holding the work in high regard in letters to the Byzantine emperor Leo VI the Wise and in his comments to Lucian and Dio Chrysostom'. Arethas is credited with reintroducing the Meditations to public discourse.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher Themistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of Suidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

We don't know how Meditations was originally preserved for posterity. The introduction to the Loeb edition (eds. Capps, Page and Rouse) mentions Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law and general Pompeianus, and the emperor's life-long friend Victorinus as individuals who might have 'rescued' the manuscript after Marcus' death in 180 AD. It was also known to the emperor Gordian I who was a young man when Marcus died. After this,

The first direct mention of the work is about 350 A.D. in the Orations of the pagan philosopher Themistius, who speaks of the παραγγέλματα (precepts) of Marcus. Then for 550 years we lose sight of the book entirely, until, about 900, the compiler of the dictionary, which goes by the name of Suidas, reveals the existence of a MS of it by making some thirty quotations, taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. He calls the book (συγγραφή) an "αγωγή (a directing) of his own life by Marcus the Emperor in twelve books." About the same time Arethas, a Cappadocian bishop, writing to his metropolitan, speaks of the scarcity of this μεγλωφελέστατον βιβλίον, and apparently sends him a copy of it.

The Wikipedia entry on Arethas expands on the bishop's role in preserving Meditations:

Arethas admits to holding the work in high regard in letters to the Byzantine emperor Leo VI the Wise and in his comments to Lucian and Dio Chrysostom'. Arethas is credited with reintroducing the Meditations to public discourse.

Nothing more is heard or seen of Marcus' work until about 1150 AD when Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople quotes it. Then,

About 150 years later (1300 A.D.) the ecclesiastical historian, Nicephorus Callistus (iii. 31) writes that Marcus "composed a book of instruction for his son, full of universal... experience and wisdom." About this very time Planudes, a monk of Constantinople, may have been engaged in compiling the anthology of extracts from various authors, including Marcus and Aelian, which has come down to us in twenty-five or more MSS dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They are practically of no help in re-establishing the text, and contain in all forty-four extracts from books IV.-XII.

Our present text is based almost entirely upon two MSS, the Codex Palatinus (P) first printed in 1558 by Xylander but now lost, which contains the whole work, and the Codex Vaticanus 1 950 (A) from which about forty-two lines have dropped out by accidental omissions here and there.

According to P. A. Brunt in Marcus Aurelius in His Meditations, Wilhelm Xylander's was the first printed edition (the date given is 1559). Xylander's source was apparently a codex provided to him by the alchemist, doctor and poet Michael Toxites; this source was lost sometime before 1568.

The first English translation was by Meric Casaubon, an French-English classical scholar, published in 1634.

2 added text, added links
source | link
1
source | link