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We have no way of knowing.

Neither Arundel's sermon in Westminster Hall, nor the anonymous Traison et Mort Chronicle, were written by an impartial observer. Both sides had an agenda, and both sources can be assumed to be biased. In the absence of some independent source, we have no way of determining which version is more accurate with any certainty.


The official record was presented during a sermon preached by Thomas Arundel in Westminster Hall on 30 September 1399. Arundel had also been an exile under Richard II, and had returned to England alongside Henry Bolingbroke. Unsurprisingly, the sermon presented events in such a way as to justify Henry Bolingbroke's ascension to the throne as the legitimate king, Henry IV.

The record of that presentation and sermon can be read (transcribed in Latin with an English translation) in this extract published on the Harvard Law School website.


The Traison et Mort Chronicle, or to give it its full title, Chronicque de la Traïson et Mort de Richart Deux Roy d'Engleterre, was written by an anonymous author in the court of Richard's queen Isabelle. This chronicle was written in French shortly after the Queen's return to France from England, perhaps c. 1401/1402. The objective of this chronicle is clear: it is an attempt to rouse the French nobles into action in support of her husband against the new king of England, Henry IV.


We have no way of knowing.

Neither Arundel's sermon in Westminster Hall, nor the anonymous Traison et Mort Chronicle, were written by an impartial observer. Both sides had an agenda, and both sources can be assumed to be biased. In the absence of some independent source, we have no way of determining which version is more accurate with any certainty.


The official record was presented during a sermon preached by Thomas Arundel in Westminster Hall on 30 September 1399. Arundel had also been an exile under Richard II, and had returned to England alongside Henry Bolingbroke. Unsurprisingly, the sermon presented events in such a way as to justify Henry Bolingbroke's ascension to the throne as the legitimate king, Henry IV.


The Traison et Mort Chronicle, or to give it its full title, Chronicque de la Traïson et Mort de Richart Deux Roy d'Engleterre, was written by an anonymous author in the court of Richard's queen Isabelle. This chronicle was written in French shortly after the Queen's return to France from England, perhaps c. 1401/1402. The objective of this chronicle is clear: it is an attempt to rouse the French nobles into action in support of her husband against the new king of England, Henry IV.


We have no way of knowing.

Neither Arundel's sermon in Westminster Hall, nor the anonymous Traison et Mort Chronicle, were written by an impartial observer. Both sides had an agenda, and both sources can be assumed to be biased. In the absence of some independent source, we have no way of determining which version is more accurate with any certainty.


The official record was presented during a sermon preached by Thomas Arundel in Westminster Hall on 30 September 1399. Arundel had also been an exile under Richard II, and had returned to England alongside Henry Bolingbroke. Unsurprisingly, the sermon presented events in such a way as to justify Henry Bolingbroke's ascension to the throne as the legitimate king, Henry IV.

The record of that presentation and sermon can be read (transcribed in Latin with an English translation) in this extract published on the Harvard Law School website.


The Traison et Mort Chronicle, or to give it its full title, Chronicque de la Traïson et Mort de Richart Deux Roy d'Engleterre, was written by an anonymous author in the court of Richard's queen Isabelle. This chronicle was written in French shortly after the Queen's return to France from England, perhaps c. 1401/1402. The objective of this chronicle is clear: it is an attempt to rouse the French nobles into action in support of her husband against the new king of England, Henry IV.


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source | link

We have no way of knowing.

Neither Arundel's sermon in Westminster Hall, nor the anonymous Traison et Mort Chronicle, were written by an impartial observer. Both sides had an agenda, and both sources can be assumed to be biased. In the absence of some independent source, we have no way of determining which version is more accurate with any certainty.


The official record was presented during a sermon preached by Thomas Arundel in Westminster Hall on 30 September 1399. Arundel had also been an exile under Richard II, and had returned to England alongside Henry Bolingbroke. Unsurprisingly, the sermon presented events in such a way as to justify Henry Bolingbroke's ascension to the throne as the legitimate king, Henry IV.


The Traison et Mort Chronicle, or to give it its full title, Chronicque de la Traïson et Mort de Richart Deux Roy d'Engleterre, was written by an anonymous author in the court of Richard's queen Isabelle. This chronicle was written in French shortly after the Queen's return to France from England, perhaps c. 1401/1402. The objective of this chronicle is clear: it is an attempt to rouse the French nobles into action in support of her husband against the new king of England, Henry IV.