Adon or Adonay (Lord, premasoretic text) ----- Kyrios or Kyros (Greek translation, confirmed by the Seventy) ----- Koresh (Cyrus, Masoretic text)
The theme of returning home is clearly present, not only in Deutero and in the Isaiah Tritus, but also and especially in Proto-Isaiah. In the chapters X and XI the subject is in fact addressed in a spiritual dimension (the remnant of Jacob will be converted to the Powerful God) with clear eschatological values (in messianic times of peace and justice even the wolf and the lamb will dwell together) and with an eager anticipation of real and imminent historical developments (redemption of the distant, collection of the exiles and the return of the missing). In 722 BC, after the fall of Samaria, nearly 30,000 Israelites were deported to Assyria, Mesopotamia, and the cities of the Media (2 Kings 17: 6), while thousands of exiles from Babylon took possession of the cities of Samaria. from Cuta, from Avva, from Amat and from Sefarvaim (2 Kings 17,24). The hypothesis of a One Isaiah is reinforced by the fact that all the Proto Isaiah is pervaded by the omen (Isaiah 29 and Isaiah 40) of an imminent fall of Jerusalem and further deportations by the millennial Babylonian power, only momentarily bent by the ascent of the Assyrian empire. The drama of the Assyrian deportations is confirmed by the symbolic name of the firstborn of Isaiah: in Hebrew Seariasub (Isaiah 7,3) it means "a rest will return", with evident allusion to the next exile and the subsequent conversion of Israel.
The central theme of the Deutero Isaiah is that of the consolation of Israel and of the return home of the exiles, after the Assyrian deportations, begun at the time of Sargon II with the fall of Samaria (722 BC). After the defeat of Sennacherib under the walls of Jerusalem (chapter 37) and the miraculous healing of King Hezekiah (chapter 38), the so-called Deutero and Trito Isaia (chapters 40-66) seem to proceed without interruption, announcing a period of promises and consolations for all of Israel. The conversion from idolatry, the liberation of the people and the return of the exiles are guided by a mysterious character, sometimes identified as a humble Servant and sometimes as anointed Lord.
The fact that the Greek terms Kyrios and Kyros may have been misunderstood (Kyrios and Kyros in Greek are common names and can be translated with lord, king, boss, master, authority and guide but Kyros also corresponds to the proper name Cyrus) may have contributed to spread the conviction that the prophet Isaiah made clear reference to the Persian emperor, two centuries in advance. This conviction would have proved to be of considerable use to the Jewish people, exiled to Babylon two centuries later, helping to propitiate the favors of the new sovereign. Moreover, the practice of subjecting Jewish prophetic literature to foreign kings is in line with all Jewish tradition. In this regard, the historian Josephus remembers how, to the 332 a: C., The book of Daniel was shown to Alexander the Great, revealing to him how the prophet had already predicted, several centuries before, the destruction of the Persian empire by a Greek prince. Alexander the Great, recognizing himself as the object of the vaticination, dismissed the crowd full of joy and promised to Israel any gift he had been asked (Flavius Joseph, Jewish Antiquities, XI, 37).
What seems interesting is the hypothesis that, at the time of Isaiah, the proper name Cyrus (Persian Kurush, Hebrew Kowresh and Greek Kyros) was nothing but a common name with the meaning of "king, chief, lord, master, guide, powerful man. in words and deeds, shepherd, throne, shining star ". Moreover, in ancient Greek "Kyros", in addition to indicating the proper name of a Persian emperor, meant "power, power, supremacy, absolute authority" and was the probable origin of the best known Greek term "Kyrios" (sir, master, capo), practically equivalent to "O ekon Kuros" (the one with authority). The term Kyros, used in the Greek koiné above all to make the name of the Persian emperor Cyrus, is in fact widely used in the fourth and fifth centuries before Christ in the sense of "supreme power, power, authority" and sometimes as a synonym of Kyrios in the sense of "lord, master, chief, having authority and power", as is clear from the works of Aeschylus, Herodic Doctor, Pindar, Sophocles, Thucydides and Plato.
On the other hand, the hypothesis that, at the time of Isaiah, the term Koroush, was none other than a generic royal title, widespread in the Middle East, like many others widely used in the history of mankind ("caesar") "," zar "," kyrios "," kaiser "," shah "). The name of Cyrus (Kyros in Greek and Koroush in ancient Persian) was used by some Indo-European rulers, such as Cyrus I, founder of the Acmenid dynasty, king of Ansan, and grandfather of Cyrus II the great and it is not unlikely that such name o the title was already widespread in the Medes, Persians and Elamites. The prophet, therefore, far from knowing miraculously and with two centuries in advance the exact name of a Persian king, could have simply glimpsed as "Anointed Lord" a foreign king, consecrated by God to free the people of Israel and to prepare the returning home, especially to the exiles of the Northern Kingdom, deported to Assyria by King Sargon II (2 Kings 17) after the fall of Samaria (722 BC).
In the first four centuries of the Vulgar Era -in Isaiah 45.1- an impressive number of Church Fathers, read Kyrios instead of Kyros, giving great emphasis to the translation "to Christ my Lord" instead of "to my anointed Cyrus". Among the most authoritative testimonies it is necessary, in this regard, to remember: Pseudo Barnabas, Letter of Barnabas, XII, 11; Irenaeus, Exposition of the Apostolic Preaching, 49; Novatian, The Trinity, XXVI; Tertullian, Against Prassea, XI, 7-8 and XXVIII, 11; Tertullian, Against the Jews, VII, 2; Cyprian, Testimonies against the Jews, I, 21.
On the possibility of equivocating the proper name "Kyros" with the common names "Kyros" and "Kyrios" only Jerome dwelled, who narrated how numerous Fathers and many Greek and Latin translations had mistakenly attributed to Christ the prophecies concerning Cyrus, confusing the proper name "Ciro" with the term "Lord". In Isaiah 45.1, many copies of the Septuagint translated "Τῷ χριστω μου Κυρω" (Tō christō mou Kurō) and the Christians read "to Christ my Lord" (instead of Cyrus, my anointed) by equivocating on the word Κυρω which in Greek he also means Lord, but in the Hebrew revisions of the IV century after Christ it was probably Koresh, proper name of King Cyrus. In this regard, Gerolamo wrote: "Scio ad hoc capitulo non solum Latinorum, sed Graecorum plurimos vehementer errare, existimantium scriptum esse : "Sic dicit Dominus Christo meo, Domino"; ut intelligatur, juxta illud quod alibi legimus: "Et: Dixit Dominus Domino meo" (Ps 110.1). Neque enim Kyrio, quod Dominum sonat, sed Cyro dicitur, here Hebraice appellatur Khores, regi Persarum, here Babylonem Chaldaeosque superavit. "(Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah, Chap. 45, 1).
It is necessary, however, to take into account the fact that the original Hebrew text was irretrievably lost, Aquila, Tivatzione and Simmaco used "Kuro" in open dispute with the Christians, the testimony of Gerolamo dates back to the IV century after Christ and the Masoretic text stabilized only towards the 10th century. In fact, just starting from the testimony of Jerome, some scholars, not at all convinced by the questionable thesis of the "hebraica veritas", came to think that "Kristo Kyros" may have been the Greek translation, astutely proposed to Emperor Cyrus, of some pre-and-other Hebrew form, such as "Adon Mashiyah" (Anointed Lord), or "Melek Mashiyah" (Anointed King) or even "Nagid Mashiyah" (Anointed Prince of Daniel 9.25) or "Kawtsin Mashiyah" (Anointed Conductor of Daniel 11, 18) or even "Yahveh Mashiyah" (anointed of the Lord of 1 Samuel 16,6-26,9 and 2 Samuel 1,14-1,16). The inclusion of "Koresh" by the Jewish revisions of the first centuries of the vulgar era could therefore depend on the fact that the Greek "Kyros":
a) it was also the almost providential translation of Ciro's proper name;
b) had had a special effect on the Persian emperor when he read, probably in Greek, the prophecies of Isaiah;
c) could very well be retranslated with the proper name "Koresh" without falsifying the sacred text, thus blocking the passage above all to the Christians who identified Jesus Christ with the "Christ Lord" of the Seventy.
The Persian king Cyrus, enlightened sovereign and lover of art and culture, almost certainly knew parts of the book of Isaiah in some ancient language and, according to the authoritative testimony of the historian Flavius Joseph, he read the prophecies concerning him astonished, he meditated for a long time on these and matured the decision to free the Jewish people from the Babylonian captivity (Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, XI, 5-7), perhaps grateful to the God of the Jews for so much honor received (Josephus, The Jewish War, V, 389) . By deleting a highly probable eventuality, even if not strictly demonstrable, it is possible that the scribes may have read to Cyrus a Greek translation of the prophecies of Isaiah, making some Hebrew form as "Adon Mashiyah" (Anointed Lord) with "Kristo Kyros", instead of "Kristo Kyrios", just to get the favor of the Persian emperor.