Are there any documented sources about what happened in ancient Egypt?

Particularly the relationship between Egyptians and Hebrews, as mentioned? E.G. were they best Friends or were so and so?

closed as too broad by Kobunite, Mark C. Wallace, Lennart Regebro, Pieter Geerkens, yannis Nov 9 '13 at 10:49

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  • 2
    I think you need to focus the question a bit. Remember that that you are talking about a timespan of around a 1000 years (or more). So it's a little bit like asking if France and England were best friends or worst enemies. – Lennart Regebro Nov 8 '13 at 12:48
  • Eg of a summary , 100 to 150 there were friends, from 150 to 600 they have bloody fights, from 600 to 1000 they returned friends, I just need time a span and comments about it, a summary, and if its too long just average it to 5 time spans. – md nth Nov 8 '13 at 14:45
  • Well, then we have the next problem: Can you define "Hebrews"? Israelites? Judeans? People in the middle east? Jews? Should Caananites be included, etc, etc. – Lennart Regebro Nov 8 '13 at 15:06
  • What does this mean? Why "in documented hieroglyphs"? If the history were published in Mandarin, would it be somehow invalid? What do you mean by "relationship"? What time period? Your comment indicates that you're looking for a millenia of history; that's book length and out of scope. – Mark C. Wallace Nov 8 '13 at 15:24
  • Ok,sorry for being too broad,isrealites are the one I wish to know,about the resource both sides will be very satisfactory, but at least hieroglyphs,relationship I meant social and political element,I ll be so confused if you tell me a book, as I told you , eg 100 to 200 king x normal relationship, 200 to 600 king p and king z, I, y all they have peaceful action toward isreali and so on I need only 10 lines I don't care about details , like trivial event when king x killed some hebrew then made peace to all so the end is peace – md nth Nov 8 '13 at 18:43

The first mention of Israel anywhere is in the stele of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah c. 1209 BCE, where it says "Israel is laid waste and his seed is no more". In other words Merneptah claims to have crushed the Israeli nation so badly that it can't rise again.

This is in fact the only mention of Israel in any Egyptian records. The reason is that Egypt never more expanded it's borders that far, so no more wars happened between Egypt and Israel.

By the 9th century BC the threat to the Israeli kingdom is instead from the east and Assyria. By 732, Israel is possibly ruled by the Assyrians, Judah seems to have been at least, and after that Israel is an independent kingdom only in brief periods between the fall of one great empire and the rise of another.

Egypts enemies after this time are therefore not Israel, but the Mesopotamian empires that rule Israel, and this doesn't end until Alexander the great takes over both regions.

That means that we know that Egypt and Israel fought a war around this start of the 13th century BC, but then we don't know anything else.

Based on how things typically works, this means that Egypt and the region where Israelites lived probably had quite little political contact, but likely a thriving trade.


As pointed out in the comments, the question is too broad in time span. For some parts of history there is additional ambiguity regarding which Hebrews you are talking about: at certain point in history Hebrew states of Israel and Judea were in conflict, and Israel made an alliance with Egypt to invade Judea. Does it make Egypt a Hebrews' ally (as seen by Israelites) or an enemy (as seen by Judeans)?

Going even further back in time, there's still a problem of identity of Hebrews among other peoples prior to 14th-ish century BC, apart from Biblical accounts.

The relations between Egypt and Hebrew state(s) varied significantly over the centuries, as did relations between any two neighbouring nations. One thing I'd like to address is the word "friends" in your answer. It's very rare for any two nations be "friends". Allies - yes; trade partners - yes; friends - hardly ever. As Churchill once said, "England has no friends, England has interests". And, as interests change, so do the alliances.

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