Is it correct? I am pleased to say that there is no authority that can deem a term correct or incorrect. There are no language police. (See Aside #1)
If you use the term Victorian Era, you will (probably) be understood. Although Victoria was only Queen of the Commonwealth, the sun never set on her territory, and even where she did not rule, she influenced (soft power). As a consequence, the term is useful - there is an entry in both wikipedia and Merriam Webster.
The term is commonly used in several contexts (gamewriting, costuming, fiction).
For US only, we can use the terms "ante-bellum" and "post-bellum" to refer to portions of the Victorian era.
Aside #1 I will grant that there are many language police, but they are not relevant to any meaningful endeavor. Arguably mocking the foolish is amusing, but probably not meaningful
Aside #2 - The prudishness of Victorians is vastly overstated. Arguably, one of the reasons that the English largely ignored the revolutions of 1850 is that the English "liberals" were more powerful than liberals in other countries because they had a long history of funding themselves through publication of pornography. Greater funding meant that they had more influence, and consequently they didn't need to rebel; they just needed to use the funds provided by pornography to advance a liberal agenda.