I wonder when the position of lictor was abolished in the Ancient Rome? Who was the last Emperor to have lictors as companions?
I have not been able to find any evidence that Lictors were ever disbanded in Ancient Rome, in fact they seem to have been active well into the 5th century.
Once Augustus came to power their roles were gradually replaced by the praetorian guard, marking their decline as an organisation.
After the fall of Rome, most Roman administrative positions from the republican era, such as the consulship lapsed making the position of Lictor irrelevant.
Here is what I came up with so far. The lictors are mentioned in the Theodosian Code (This is from footnote n.46 in this paper). More evidence for them at the end of the 4th century CE can be adduced from Gibbon who says that one Ammonius "expired under the rod of the lictor". I don't know what was Gibbon's reference for that but he can be trusted to get such things right.
So we know that lictors were still in vogue in the 5th century. When did they disappear? My present guess is that Heraclius might have abolished them as part of his reforms that swept a lot of the Roman heritage away. But that's just a guess, I'll keep looking for a real answer.
I also found this tantalizing pointer:
For the fullest account of the lictors, see Mommsen, Romisches Staatsrecht, i. 355, 374 (3 r d ed., 1887).
Perhaps someone can look it up...
The last mentions of Lictors accompanying Roman emperors known to me are from the reign of Andronikos I Komnenos, so they were most likely around at least until the crusader sack of Constantinople of 1204. They are well-attested in the 6th century and we even have several original late antiquity depictions of fasces. So they actually existed long after the existing answers claim.
I disagree with the claim presented in Felix Goldberg's answer:
My present guess is that Heraclius might have abolished them as part of his reforms that swept a lot of the Roman heritage away
This is a dramatic misunderstanding of Heraclius. Heraclius never did anything with the intention of "sweeping a lot of the Roman heritage away". Mr. Goldberg is presumably basing this on a misunderstanding of Heraclius finally making Greek the main administrative language of the Empire, without knowing the context and details behind this. Heraclius firmly considered himself a Roman and would surely be shocked that he is being credited by someone with "sweeping the Roman heritage away".