What property relations existed between peasants and those who took from peasants in early Ottoman rule (1300-1450) in Anatolia?
How was social surplus extracted from peasants, by who, with what conception of property? Was property extraction ethnically or religiously different? Was there a concept of legality? Were there extra-legal extractions? Was extraction as cash, crops, or labour? Were peasants here free or unfree, in what way?
I'm following Banaji (citation below) on peasants as:
- Agricultural producers, including husbandry
- With some level of social autonomy: land-boundness perhaps as demonstrative of the difference between a peasantry and a slave, peasants aren't unencumbered property
- In marxian "Feudal" or "Tributary" societies
- Involving self-reproduction through subsistence
- (I've not got up to Banaji on what he considers distinctive in peasant relations of labour and relations of exploitation; but, he is very strong on something approximating a Marxist conception of peasantry as being present across feudal and tributary ("Asiatic" despotic) relations of extraction post-antiquity; including early capitalisms.)