It is my understanding that in most of (if not all) the states in western medieval Europe the Roman Catholic church was the only recognized religious body.

I'm looking for an example of a state with recognized Roman Catholic presence (priests and bishops with Papal investiture) but where there was at least one other dominant and recognized religious body (or at least presence if it wasn't as organized).

My understanding of medieval history is pretty basic so it could be that my question is either silly or wrong or both in which case I apologize.

closed as off-topic by Pieter Geerkens, Semaphore, jwenting, Kobunite, Comintern Oct 15 '14 at 22:44

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  • 4
    Depends on what you mean by "dominant" and "presence"... France had Cartharism, the Rhine Valley(?) and Croatia had Bogomilist, Italy had Fraticelli, and so on and so on. Also, from the tags I assume you are asking about during the Medieval period, so I took the liberty of editing that in. – Semaphore Oct 14 '14 at 14:14
  • 2
    There is always Moorish Spain. Although the reconquista eventually pushed the Moors out, there was in fact quite some time where various provinces had both Roman Catholic and Islamic institutions. – LateralFractal Oct 14 '14 at 14:41
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    I suspect you will find active Jewish synagogues in most of the states. I suspect that you'll also find Islamic institutions in the Balkans for a good portion of the period. – Mark C. Wallace Oct 14 '14 at 14:56
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    Per Mark, the question is formed based on incorrect assumptions. Also there were multiple Papacies and repeated organised "heresy"ies. – Samuel Russell Oct 14 '14 at 21:16
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    @SamuelRussell Yes, but should you downvote someone for not already knowing what religious minorities existed in the Medieval period? Or choosing to see anti-popes and various heresies as internal to Roman Catholicism? – LateralFractal Oct 15 '14 at 0:52