I am specifically interested in information related to: the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, and the University of Oxford.
From what I have been able to find so far universities were created as an extension of the learning tradition embodied in monasteries. However, this doesn't really get to the why of the question. That explanation just seems to assert that they were a continuation of that sort of tradition.
My question then is, what was the demand during this time period for these institutions of higher learning to be erected? Did the sovereigns of the time period wish for their to be a more educated class? Was there some source of demand for a degree as proof of one's education? I'm looking for academic sources that can shine light on these questions.