After Muhammad conquered the entire Arabian Peninsula in the 1st Jihad converting it to Islamic rule, four Califs took up the sword of Islam, after Muhammad's death in 632 AD, to proliferate the revelations of Muhammad's Quran throughout the world. Particularly Calif Omar who began referring to himself as "Commander of The Faithful, who conquered vast masses of territory stretching from The Middle East far into Africa. In less than 100 years after the death of Muhammad, The subsequent califs conquered the Persian armies capturing Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Persia. To the west they conquered the Christian provinces of the eastern Mediterranean, from Syria and Palestine to Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. In 711 AD they conquered the Iberian peninsula and established a strong foothold in Europe, which led to conquering Spain and Portugal. By 751 AD Islam had conquered India and Central China. In fact, in these short 100 years they spread their political / religious totalitarian ideology, ruling over of planet earth, greater than The Roman Empire at its glory. Not until Pope Urban II and the launch of The First Crusades, were the Muslims seriously challenged. But it wasn't until after the Renaissance and the industrial revolution in Europe, that Western Civilization had the technology and wealth and political might to recapture these great ancient civilizations and Christian lands from the Muslims and prevent Islamic World-wide Domination.