(This answer isn't very historically rigorous, as I wrote it thinking I was on Worldbuilding.Stackexchange where citations and rigorous detailing aren't expected, but I think it is worthwhile here because it adds a different perspective which I would say is valid overall, and seems needed to me to relate the question to historical cosmologies instead of only looking from modern cosmology.)
I think the nature of the shift in relationship towards the universe is slightly different than you describe. One very rough but interesting perspective is that pre-empire cultures (before pantheons which had a dominant head god such as the sun god the Aryans had showed up) tended to relate to the world rather inclusively. We were part of the whole universe and everything in it was all a big cycle of death and rebirth.
The religious, ethnic and imperial conflicts that then arose, and the Aryans and other sun god worshippers, tended instead to cast their male sun god as superior to others, and humans as separate from the world and from spirit. This shift carried through into Judeo-Christianity and Islam, where we have these religious texts telling us what to believe, what's right and wrong, about how separate we are from spirit and how death is permanent etc., and a lot of that basic separateness of identity carried on into scientific thinking.
So people before all that history would tend to see an actual space alien as just part of the universe they hadn't met before, and would be interested but wouldn't necessarily think of it as other than of their universe and akin to themselves somehow.
Even in, say, ancient Egyptian or bronze/iron-age Greco-Roman cosmology (and probably many other pre-"Enlightenment" cultures), the underworld and the planets and so on were semi-metaphorical and unfamiliar from direct experience, but weren't conceived of as weird bizarre ooh from outer-space kind of things, because there was no such distinction in their cosmologies. They had plenty of imagination of other worlds and dimensions and the creatures in them. The ancient Egyptian underworld was far out, complex, and full of all sorts of interesting creatures etc.
The concept of "space aliens" as we now use it requires a cosmology akin to what we have now, and the expectations of strangeness or sameness that go along with it, which means you need to go to like 18th Century Europe at least before that's going to make any sense. Even so, it takes a long time before popular thinking or even sci fi writers are getting very "alien" in their thinking. e.g. Star Trek and Doctor Who are still full of "space aliens" who are Earth-like humanoids behaving more like Westerners than anything else.
So I think it's pretty hard to define and accept or reject any story as being space alien or not without some definitions, so it becomes fairly arbitrary depending on what you really want to know.