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Giovanni Carpini in his Ystoria Mongalorum lists as factions under the dominion of the Mongol Empire:

Nations that have been subjugated:

  • Meniti
  • Colona-Thorati
  • Sassi
  • Thoas
  • Sarthi

It has been narrowed down to these 5 nations.

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    ...if it turns out to be something like "What would we call these in English today?", which ones do you know already? Getting all 46 is a lot of work, so I figure the least you can do is knock out the easy ones for us. – T.E.D. Mar 6 '15 at 14:26
  • Translating these Latin ethnonyms to English and/or Identifying them with known factions/tribes. – nomadic squirrel Mar 6 '15 at 14:48
  • Does anyone know how to make a list without double-spacing everything? I am not sure if my edit makes the question easier or harder to read. – Pieter Geerkens Mar 6 '15 at 20:47
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    And after you are done with this, please go through Ptolemy's Geographica and translate all the named tribes to their modern equivalents. – Tyler Durden Mar 7 '15 at 6:05
  • @PieterGeerkens maybe using • Item<br> works? I didn't try. – o0'. Mar 7 '15 at 9:44
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The list can be found in the original Latin on page 68 of this edition of the Ystoria Mongolarum, about 1/3 of the way down the page.

On Page 269 (through 295) are C. Raymond Beazley's Notes on Hakluyt's Version of Vincent of Beauvis' Abridgement of Carpini, discussing the text. On Page 278 at the top we have a discussion of India magna (noting that India in this context likely meant everything from Kabul to Saigon, our Indies): as that part of India between the Indus and Ganges rivers, so roughly corresponding to the modern country of India.

Further India would at his time have referred to the territories east of, or beyond, the Ganges, and so to our modern Indo-China, the countries of Burma, Siam, Laos, Malaysia, Cambodia and Vietnam.

Lesser India would have been the territories west of the Indus River, or roughly modern Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Simply perusing the text I recognize the Kytai and Naymani as Mongol tribes (nations) subjugated by Temujin very early on. The Merkiti may also fall in this category.

  • Solangi - Manchuria & Korea (p. 271)
  • Kara Kytai - a Mongol tribe inhabiting Turkestan (perhaps a greater Turkestan) (p. 276)
  • Huyur - the modern Uighurs (p. 277), a Turkish tribe inhabiting th area around Bishbalikh in the 13th century. (p. 277)
  • magna Bulgaria - the region inhabited by the Volga Bulgars, around the Volga River south of Kazan. (p.285)
  • Hungaria magna - the Bashkirs of Samara, Orenburg, Perm and Vyatka. (p. 285)
  • Kergis - Circassians of the Caucasus (p. 286)

Note the (often vast) distance between the actual territory being referred to and what a simplistic translation might generate from modern country names. Also, at the time of Carpini's writing there was a mistaken belief in an Asian Abyssinia distinct from the (true) African Abyssinia. This likely is the source of the reference to Aethiopia, the modern country of which name was certainly never under any Mongol suzerainty.

Update - two more:

  • Torci - possibly the Turks, rendered also Turci and elsewise (p. 261, Note 37)
  • Yrchasi - Circassians (p. 262, note 40)

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