Regarding question 2, it should be noted that before a voyage to another country a Soviet citizen had to undergo a scrutiny by local Party organs, ostensibly to ensure his or her strict moral values. Some KGB checks were surely performed as well, but those were hidden. Questions by Party (Komsomol for younger people, I guess) were, on the contrary, open, and could be pretty humiliating in case of family matters, such as divorce. And a petty Party official had full authority to prevent you from visiting even Bulgaria, to say nothing of DDR.
By the way, while tourism abroad was rather rare, a considerable number of Soviet skilled persons went on business trips to friendly developing countries, such as Vietnam, Egypt, India, Cuba, to build or supervise plants, electrical stations and so on. They obviously had to undergo similar checks to tourists.
Travelling to the Western countries for leisure was unheard of. For business reasons (no need to remind that all business was state owned?) or cultural ties, probable but all checks were much stricter. And, as @jwenting mentioned, having a hostage of sorts was a huge plus. If a writer, for instance, went to France to receive an award from La Republique, going with his wife wasn't likely to be approved.