The idea of a super-scientist who invents things that no contemporary is able to equal because he's just that smart is a common trope in works of fiction, especially of the sci-fi or superhero variety. I know that there is at least one precedent, a brilliant mind who was demonstrably several decades ahead of his time: James Maxwell. Analysis of his work shows that, if he had not tragically died young, (of cancer,) he was on a course that would have almost certainly led him directly to the Theory of Relativity, almost half a century before Einstein. It was decades before anyone managed to catch up to Maxwell, and the guy who accomplished it was so brilliant that his name has entered the modern lexicon as essentially synonymous with "genius".
The thing is, Maxwell is the only example I'm familiar with of such a super-scientist in real life. Do we have any examples of this being in any way a common thing, of a single person figuring out something that none of his contemporaries were able to duplicate until significantly later?
Note: Three people who might quickly come to mind but are not valid examples are Nikola Tesla, (who has had many amazing inventions apocryphally attributed to him but somehow no one else has ever demonstrated that they actually worked, and the things he came up with that did actually work, his contemporaries were able to duplicate,) Leonardo da Vinci (who came up with some very interesting designs for a flying machine, but it was nothing at all like any successful heavier-than-air flying machine that's actually been built since the Wright Brothers first figured out how to make it work,) and Charles Babbage (who came up with the idea of a computing machine, but failed to build a working model mostly due to the poor quality of materials science in his day. The limiting factor here was not intelligence and comprehension, but the inability to obtain the necessary mechanical precision.) To be a valid example, their work has to be independently proven valid at a much later date.