The OP has a general impression that they might be

  • the economic depression

  • unemployment

  • the "stab in the back" idea

  • the treaty debt

  • the parliamentary deadlocks

  • the presence of disbanded army corps and paramilitary factions

He is looking for systematic historical analyses of the phenomenon

  • 2
    What are your restrictions on the type of government? Please be more specific. There were dictatorships a plenty in Europe. Nov 29 '15 at 18:56
  • 1
    The question is about the "role of personality in history" and there can be no definite answer: it is a question of opinion. Whatever answer is given it cannot be justified. Similar question can be asked about any other person (Stalin, Churchill or Alexander III of Macedonia).
    – Alex
    Nov 29 '15 at 19:22
  • 3
    Many years ago I heard a lecture given by a historian of the 1930s. His opening remarks were: Germany would have had a Hitler, even if the young corporal of that name had been killed in the first world war. To take any other view depends on holding a great persons theory of history. It is not people who determine events, it is circumstances.
    – WS2
    Nov 29 '15 at 23:49
  • 1
    I am not equating the two. I am observing that modern fascism arose out of modern states with capitalist economies and parliamentary systems, not out of agrarian sates or monarchies, etc. This is controversial? Nov 30 '15 at 14:58
  • 1
    Theweilet (1977) Male fantasies. And he’s a sociologist. Because this isn’t a historical question: it is about theory interacting with theory without reference to the documentary record of the past. There are no premodern fascisms btw. The earliest analyses of fascism ground it in Napoleon IIIs France. Fascism is a theoretical category of late, capitalist, modernity. It doesn’t apply to early modern societies. Nov 25 '19 at 0:43

Definitely not. Consider for instance, Austrian fascism. Austria is a country with totally similar culture and they got their fascist regime as well. Ironically it was hostile towards Nazi regime in Germany.

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  • The "title" of my question was perhaps badly worded for brevity. I am still looking for the primary causal factors or the necessary "ingredients" of fascism, with Germany as the paradigm case. Nov 29 '15 at 23:16

Fascism has different faces in different countries, although they have some common features. You guessed it right that modern Fascism has come out of a capitalist parliamentary system. It is a result of failure of the bourgeois government preceding the Fascist government to address some genuine problems of the masses. Fascists give lip service and address the mass that as soon as they come in power, they will work for solving those problems. Religious symbols, racial hatred are some crucial tools used by them to gain popularity of the majority. [Here's a detailed review on how Fascism arose in Germany. It's an article by Leon Trotsky.][1] [ Another article by Robin Blick on the development of German Fascism][2]

  • I've added a link to an article by Leon Trotsky to my answer. Hope it will help. Nov 24 '19 at 10:13
  • @AnindyaMondal - Glad to see reference to Leon Trotsky. I wanted to provide a bit more context on him and his work on fascism. Please edit or remove as you deem fit.
    – J Asia
    Nov 24 '19 at 12:07
  • No it's OK. Thanks for the edit. Nov 25 '19 at 0:16
  • 1
    Everyone knows who Trotsky is
    – Rohit
    Nov 25 '19 at 4:57
  • 3
    Never assume that everyone knows who anyone is; reality does not support that assumption.
    – MCW
    Nov 25 '19 at 13:20

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