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What in the historical literature are most often cited as the "ingredients" of modern fascism, apart from the rise of some charismatic Hitler-type leader?

Examples in the German case might include the economic depression, unemployment, the "stab in the back" ideology, the treaty debt, the parliamentary deadlocks, and the presence of disbanded army corps and paramilitary factions.

By "modern fascism" I mean the fascism arising out of a capitalist, parliamentary system, as opposed to fascism arising from conquests, military coups, unpopular dictatorships, agrarian regimes, etc.

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    What are your restrictions on the type of government? Please be more specific. There were dictatorships a plenty in Europe. – Deer Hunter Nov 29 '15 at 18:56
  • Yes, I see your point. I guess I meant the historical conditions of Weimar Germany itself and the most essential "ingredients" of the Nazi turn, those that might apply elsewhere. But with less emphasis on the pivotal personality. Will edit if I can think of a better way to specify. – Nelson Alexander Nov 29 '15 at 19:14
  • Has "what" in the question to be replaced by "was"? – Alex Nov 29 '15 at 19:18
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    Many years ago I heard a lecture given by a historian of the 1930s. His opening remarks were: Germany would have had a Hitler, even if the young corporal of that name had been killed in the first world war. To take any other view depends on holding a great persons theory of history. It is not people who determine events, it is circumstances. – WS2 Nov 29 '15 at 23:49
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    I am not equating the two. I am observing that modern fascism arose out of modern states with capitalist economies and parliamentary systems, not out of agrarian sates or monarchies, etc. This is controversial? – Nelson Alexander Nov 30 '15 at 14:58
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Definitely not. Consider for instance, Austrian fascism. Austria is a country with totally similar culture and they got their fascist regime as well. Ironically it was hostile towards Nazi regime in Germany.

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  • @Bregalad yes. You are correct. – Anixx Nov 29 '15 at 22:47
  • The "title" of my question was perhaps badly worded for brevity. I am still looking for the primary causal factors or the necessary "ingredients" of fascism, with Germany as the paradigm case. – Nelson Alexander Nov 29 '15 at 23:16

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