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Being European, I know history of World War II from Europe's perspective (and mainly with focus on Czechoslovakia).

So:

Was a land belonging to Australia ever attacked during WW2?

For scope of question, it does not to be mainland, but if there are islands belonging to Australia, that applies to (Pearl Harbour and USA example).

And if yes, what was the most important battle?

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    You need to watch the movie Australia! (It has the Japanese attack on Darwin in it) – Andrew Grimm Dec 27 '15 at 12:37
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    There's actually a wikipedia article on this: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attacks_on_Australia_during_World_War_II – Semaphore Dec 27 '15 at 13:04
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    Welcome to the site; I regret that your first question was closed, but How to Ask establishes the community standard that we close any question that can be answered by wikipedia; I think your question was on the edge - the first two links weren't obvious topics to search, but the third link was. If those wikipedia pages don't answer your underlying question, please ask another, and please feel free to answer other questions. – MCW Dec 27 '15 at 18:56
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    Quite apart from the attacks on Darwin, the Japanese invaded Papua New Guinea, an area administered by Australia. They also occupied the western part of the same island, then part of the Netherlands East Indies. A long campaign was fought from late 1942 to evict the Japanese from the territory. see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Guinea_campaign – WS2 Dec 27 '15 at 19:37