I know the pyramid is supposed to have pointed to the north star at the time, and also that some proportions (height to width??) are in the Golden Ratio. Is there a complete list of such features, as well as any information on the history of its construction?
Those are all facts about its construction.
The pyramids at Gisa are aligned pretty accurately north, if you are building something that big and you don't have theodolites and RTK-GPS then having a fixed star to aim at is a very easy way to get the sides parallel. If there is/was any religous significance to the Pole star I suspect it was invented by the royal surveyors.
The golden ration comes from using a survey wheel. If you lay out a line by rolling a wheel a certain number of times, and then set a height by stacking the same wheel vertically you get an angle of 51 deg or 43 degrees (depending on how many high). Then the geometry of circles gives you pi and the golden ration without you every having to calculate it.
They also knew that a 3:4:5 triangle gave a right angle (since 5^2 = 4^2 = 3^2 ) but didn't know about Pythagoras theorem in general