This is just a derived question from my other question about firefighters.

I wonder if there have been special forces for security like what we call police nowadays or at least nightwatchmen in Muslim Countries and how they were organized and what were their duties later in modern times (I'm thinking of 18th till the turn of the 20th Century, but with the focus on the time before these states have been colonized):

And how modern were they especially as influences from modern Europe may come into account.

As a focus on location I would choose North Africa/Maghreb states, as they were divided into states which were ruled by ottomans (for whom @Luboš-Motl already provided some useful links) and "interdependent" states i guess there could be a difference, so if necessary i would focus more on what we now call Morocco!


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