What is the extent of current knowledge on the physical structure of the city of Mohenjo Daro?

Have all possible roads and buildings (possibly in 3D) been reconstructed? Do we completely know the usages of the structures? Is there any current research going on in this direction? What were the modes of lighting the streets? How was the city life? What kind of grains did they store in the granary?

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    @MarkC.Wallace has it very well described. Its perhaps not that absolute, but requesting references is usually good for at least a close vote or two. However, if there are specific things you want to know about, (eg: "What's the current consensus on the Aryan Invasion theory?"), that can be asked. There's a good chance that answers will contain references to works you may be interested in. Just avoid phrasing your question like this other one. :-)
    – T.E.D.
    Commented Mar 9, 2016 at 14:40
  • vtc as too broad
    – John Dee
    Commented May 24, 2019 at 17:24

1 Answer 1


There's an article here with details and reconstruction pictures like this one. Most of the site is small houses and you can see from photos many have not been reconstructed but there is still a lot that was done. A New York Times article on Mohenjo Daro says

Much of the area has been reconstructed with newly made bricks, which preserves the look and feel of a city although it has created a controversy among some people who oppose such tinkering. The reconstruction is most striking at the site of the great bath, where one can easily imagine religious bathing rituals.

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Here's the inside reconstructed of a house.

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Here are some steps reconstructed.

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There's a map here which shows locations of the gates, bath, main street and other important places.

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There's an article 'Indus Valley Civilization: Town Planning, Art, Social Life and Religion' that says

To the west of each was a ‘citadel’ mound built on a high podium of mud-brick and to the east was the town proper the main hub of the residential area. The citadel and the town was further surrounded by a massive brick wall. In fact careful planning of the town, fine drainage system, well arranged water supply system prove that all possible steps were carefully adopted to make the town ideal and comfortable for the citizenry.

The street lights system, watch and ward arrangement at night to outwit the law breakers, specific places to throw rubbish and waste materials, public wells in every street, well in every house etc. revealed the high sense of engineering and town planning of the people. The main streets some as wide as 30 to 34 feet were laid out with great skill dividing the cities into blocks within which were networks of narrow lanes.

I found something on the kinds of crops also

The types of crops that the Indus Civilization had was wheat, barley, peas, lentils, linseed, and mustard. Experts say that they might have grown cotton in the summer. They did not grow rice because it didn't grow well where they lived, but they did find white rice and fed it to their animals. The silt that the river brought in when it flooded was the reason why they can grow this many crops. The nutrients that the plants needed was replenished every year when the annual floods came in.

There are also some videos on youtube but I don't know how historical they are. Some look like computer game videos. I just searched mohenjo daro on youtube.

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    Thank you, great answer!
    – mukhujje
    Commented Nov 8, 2019 at 9:57

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