How was the code and operating rules of the corsairs of the Mediterranean used, such as by Barbary Corsairs or Knights of the Order, during Middle Ages?

There are references to agreements in the Mediterranean for privateering, and also agreements in between the corsairs to agree on the distribution of income from loots and slavery.

One example is in the book "The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II" by Fernand Braudel, in which the following is stated: "... in the Mediterranean, the words piracy and pirates were hardly in it's current usage before 17th century... Privateering is legitimate war, authorized either by formal declaration of war or by letters of marque, passports, commissions or instructions. Privateering had it's own laws, rules, living customs and traditions." (page 866)

Also, in the Wikipedia Article on Pirate Codes states, the following is stated: "privateering articles can be traced back to Europe in the Middle Ages when there was a system of 'joint hands' agreements between merchants, owners and seamen to share profits."

There are many references to some sort of operating regulations by the corsairs in the Mediterranean, however I couldn't reach any details on what these were, how detailed and formal (or informal) they were, and if these were the similarly used in between opposite groups such as the Knights of the Order and the Barbary Corsairs?

  • "Morisco exiles of the Reconquista and Maghreb pirates added to the numbers, but it was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and the arrival of the privateer and admiral Kemal Reis in 1487 that the Barbary corsairs became a true menace to shipping from European Christian nations" from Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary_pirates#History) This time period also coincides with the (beginning of the) general decline of Venetian and \Genoese sea power; not surprisingly Apr 23, 2016 at 22:32
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    You've provided no evidence that there was a code of the corsairs, or that either of the organizations you mention used the code of the corsairs.
    – MCW
    Apr 24, 2016 at 0:55
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    Your edit is a good one, and almost gets you to a question that I can vote to reopen - except it is not clear that you have a question and what that is. The research is a great advance, now you just need to make clear what your actual question is. Apr 25, 2016 at 1:43


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