I am asking this question intrigued by the fact that in certain religious books (mostly Arabic) it is stated that rain and hail comes from the sky (heaven) and not from Earth. They probably did not know that rain and hail comes from clouds. My question is when did many understand this fact?
From Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas:
Rain and winds, and whatsoever occurs by local impulse alone, can be caused by demons. It is a dogma of faith that the demons can produce winds, storms, and rain of fire from heaven
For this reason, whenever severe weather threatened, the best response was thought to be to ring the church bells or fire cannons to frighten off the demons. Sprinkling of Holy water, praying, and other such liturgical remedies were also done to try to drive the demons away.