In general, it is problematic to call "nationalism" anything before the French Revolution, because before that the idea that the nation was a political subject was just political-fiction.
Apart from that, before the second half of the XIX century, to many people it really did not affect much if his country was under the control of a foreign power. Travel was rare and slow, the only mass media were printed newspapers (and those had only regional circulation, and practical only to those who could read), and the presence of the central government was almost unexistent outside the major cities (for example, schooling was in Spanish but there was no compulsory universal schooling in Spain until 1857). So, for most people, life was as it had always been.
Additionally, in Spain it is difficult to talk about regionalism before the Spanish Succession War because, before that, Spain was a personal union: several countries under the same ruler, each country with its own laws, institutions and traditions. A Catalonian in Seville would have been as much of a foreigner as an Englishman (and, for example, could not have legally engaged in trade with the American colonies, which was reserved for Castillians).
That said, there were a couple of movements that could be interpreted as "proto-nationalistic" in that period.
The first was Catalonia switching sides in the War of Spanish Succession. The French candidate (Philip V) had been accepted as King by the Courts, but there was unease as he was a representative of the very centralist French Bourbons. So finally Catalonia passed to support Archduke Charles who was seen as more amenable to keep the status quo. Note that the stated intention was not to break the personal union, but to have Archduke Charles as King both of Castille and Aragon1. Regardles of which were his original intentions, that rebellion gave Philip V the opportunity to declare Catalonia as "conquered country" and impose the French centralistic modern to create a "modern" Spain.
The second was a century later during the Carlist Wars, when the Carlist (conservative) candidate won considerable support in rural areas of Catalonia and Euskadi with the promise to restore the local laws and institutions suppressed by Philip V (again, not a promise of independence). But the major cities remained firmly under the control of the central government.
Again, take both of these with a grain of salt, principally because none of those officially asked to break the personal union, but to maintain the separate institutions of each kingdom. Also, as these events are used to support or deny current political claims, there is lot of political motivated infighting that make it difficult to objectively assess those events (did the rural Basques support the Carlist before they were conservative as the Carlist pretendent, or because of the promise of the restoration of their laws? How many people did really support Charles?).
1 This is the official, stated posture. Some could argue that given what was at the stake (the partition of the whole Spanish Empire), the Catalonian leaders would not have get support for an "independent" king so they had to settle to support Charles as common King. For contrast, in the Catalan Revolt of 1640 they offered the crow to Louis XIII, which would have broken the personal union.