Can you give examples of a unitary state splitting into several smaller states in modern history. What was the basis for the self determination of the pieces?
Panama became independent of Colombia in 1903.
Other regions of unitary states have declared independence but not achieved universal international diplomatic recognition, e.g.
- Kosovo from Serbia in 2008 (around 90 countries)
- Abkhazia and South Ossetia from Georgia in 2008, Nagorno-Karabakh from Azerbaijan in 1991, and Transnistria from Moldova in 1990. Aside from Russia, these countries are mainly recognized by each other
- Northern Cyprus from Cyprus in 1983 (Turkey alone)
- Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic from Morocco in 1976 (around 60 countries)