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I know that today, if I take a cruise of the Mediterranean, then each time the boat stops in a new country, and I wish to go ashore and see the sites, that I will need to have appropriate documentation. At some location near the docks, I will be greeted by a uniformed agent of the host nation, who will inspect my passport, ensure the proper visas exist if required, and possibly search any day-pack I am carrying. I am interested in learning the history of this concept, at least from the last few hundred years.
These questions How did modern border crossing security develop? and When did passports become common contain some very helpful information. I'm looking for a more detailed timeline of the development of border controls. The answer to the first question, " "passports were not generally required for international travel until the first world war" (quoted from the Guardian) is a useful top level summary, but history is more complicated - for example, passports are mentioned in "Around the world in 80 days" (1873). What changed between 1873 and 1914?
I'm looking not to identify a year or event when border controls existed, but to understand the process by which the modern border control system came into place.