The Golden Bull of 1356 did not prohibit explicitly the creation of new kingdoms, but
a) there were many rules regarding the precedence of the existing electors
b) the king of Bohemia had some special status due to being the only king.
A new kingdom would imply on i) revising all the privileges and precedence rules to include the new king, which would obviously upset someone; OR ii) letting the new king with lesser privileges than the other electors and the king of Bohemia, which would appear very demeaning to the new king.
Some quotations from the Golden Rule to support these assertions:
We decree, moreover, that, as often as an imperial court shall henceforth chance to be held, in every assembly,-in council, namely, at table or in any place whatsoever where the emperor or king of the Romans shall happen to sit with the prince electors, on the right side of the emperor or king of the Romans there shall sit immediately after the archbishop of Mainz or the archbishop of Cologne-whichever, namely, shall happen at that time, according to the place or province, following the tenor of his privilege, to sit at the right hand of the emperor-first, the king of Bohemia, as he is a crowned and anointed prince, and secondly, the count palatine of the Rhine. But on the left side, immediately after whichever of the aforesaid archbishops shall happen to sit on the left, the duke of Saxony shall have the first, and, after him, the margrave of Brandenburg the second place.
So, if you create a second king, who is going to sit at the right of the emperor? Or, who is going to tell the Duke of Saxony that he is not going to be the first at the left of the emperor any more?
We decree that, in holding an imperial court, whenever in future one
shall chance to be held, the aforesaid prince electors,
ecclesiastical and secular, shall immutably hold their positions on
the right and on the left-according to the prescribed order and
manner. And no other prince of whatever standing, dignity,
pre-eminence or condition be may be, shall in any way be preferred to
them or anyone of them, in any acts relating to that court; in going
there, while sitting or while standing. And it is distinctly declared
that especially the king of Bohemia shall, in the holding of such
courts, in each and every place and act aforesaid, immutably precede
any other king, with whatsoever special prerogative of dignity he
may be adorned, no matter what the occasion or cause for which he may
happen to come or to be present.
The law above even considers the case of a new kingdom being created. So, to accommodate the new king they would have to change the "immutable" precedence rules, and end the privileges of the King of Bohemia, OR the new king would have to accept having less privileges than the King of Bohemia and even, in some aspects, the other non-king electors.
In short, supposing you want a new crown to a new king, who is going to convince whom to accept lesser precedence or lesser privileges?
You can continue reading the Golden Bull to sort the many precedence rules about the various ceremonies during the Diet, coronations and the elections, and the special legal privileges to Bohemia and some of the non-king electors. Imagine the pain of having to change every little detail of these intricate rules - the Emperor would need to have a very good reason to do that.