Khalkha Mongol khans fought for China against the Dzungars. What was the reason for that? Why did the Dzungars become enemies of the Khalkh Mongols?

See: Dzungar Genocide & Dzungar–Qing Wars

  • I know this questions is terribly nooby. The history is just my hobby. And I will be happy to learn more about Dzungar.
    – kurumkan
    Oct 19, 2016 at 8:30
  • Edited. Also please if you have any resources about Dzungar's military art, weapons, armors share with me. Thanks in advance!
    – kurumkan
    Oct 19, 2016 at 8:36

1 Answer 1


Although my sources seem to have disappeared:

First, the Khalkhas were not a coherent group. There was a lot of internal strife. Allying yourself with one Khalkha khan equaled a declaration of war to another. Both Tushiyetu Khan and Khan Shira were Khalkhas. Both reigned over a subset of the Khalkha population.

Originally Khalkha & Dzungars were allied. The Khalkhas and Oirats were in league, bound by the provisions of the Mongol-Oirat code. Read this for more information.

So Galdan Boshugtu Khan attempted to ally himself with Khan Shira, who got killed later on during an invasion by Tushiyetu Khan.

During the invasion of Tushiyetu Khan, Galdan dispatched his brother Dorji-jav with an army to support the remaining Khalkhas (at least the subjects of the late Khan Shira), but the alliance was defeated and Dorji-jav was killed in battle.

Following the loss of his brother & the war, Galdan Boshugtu Khan wanted to expand eastwards into the lands of Tushiyetu Khan.

So Galdan Boshugtu Khan allied himself with the Russians (already in conflict with Tushiyetu Khan) and invaded the Khalkha lands. After being defeated near Lake Baikal, Erdene Zuu Monastery, and Tomor, Tushiyetu Khan was forced to flee.

Following this conquest, the Qing Dynasty incited a revolt among the Khalkhas and supported Tushiyetu Khan. This lead to the Battle of Olgoi Lake (1688). The Khalkhas (with their allies) lost against Galdan Boshugtu Khan, which resulted in the remaining unconquered Khalkhas (including the spiritual leaders Jebtsundamba_Khutuktu & Zanabazar) to submit to Qing.

So to answer your question:

At the time of the Dzungar-Qing Wars, the Khalkhas were no longer a strong & independent faction. They were partially vassalized by Qing or under the reign of the Dzungar khans. No Khalkha force strong enough to tip the balance in the war existed.

Edit: Found the page Qing conquests of Mongolia, which explains it a lot better then I did.

  • The formatting makes this more difficult to read. Please provide explicit sources for the quotes (if they are quotes; the syntax of the first indicates that it is code....). Is there a reason why you've formatted some of the names in grey boxes?
    – MCW
    Oct 19, 2016 at 12:22
  • @MarkC.Wallace : I intended to change them to biography-links of the persons. But for most of the names I can't seem to find any reliable websites. Best to remove the formatting then I guess?
    – User999999
    Oct 19, 2016 at 12:35
  • Is it "kalka" or "klakha"? "Kalka" or "kalka"? (If it is a proper noun, it should be capitalized throughout.
    – MCW
    Oct 19, 2016 at 12:39
  • 2
    Thank you a lot! I want to learn more about Tushetu Khan
    – kurumkan
    Oct 20, 2016 at 9:40
  • and his fight against russia
    – kurumkan
    Oct 20, 2016 at 9:51

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