Disclaimer: This is NOT meant to incite political debate. I am looking for a historical answer.

Presidents George H W Bush and George W Bush both invaded the Middle East. Before these two, what father and son pair each invaded the Middle East while top-level political leaders of their land? Maybe during the crusades?

Clarification: The question is for the names of the father-son pair who invaded the Middle East prior to the Bush family. The best answer is the most recent.

  • Curiosity. I'm wondering if there were any post-crusades father & son invasions, and when the latest one was.
    – Spuds
    Oct 26, 2016 at 3:39
  • 7
    Given that in many monarchies power passes from fathers to sons, I'll bet there will be many people who qualify (most of them rulers of Middle East kingdoms, or Ottoman Sultans)
    – SJuan76
    Oct 26, 2016 at 7:22
  • 2
    Pre-Crusades and BC: Antigonus Monophthalmus and his son, Demetrius Poliorcetes.
    – Brasidas
    Oct 26, 2016 at 7:34
  • 4
    Even if this were not a list question. It seems like trivia. Oct 26, 2016 at 13:26
  • 3
    Do vespasian and Titus count? Their invasions began before they were emperors. Oct 26, 2016 at 17:32

2 Answers 2


If we're allowed to expand the definition of the "Middle East" (and possibly also "invasion") a little, Russian Tsar Nicholas I died on March 2, 1855 in the middle of the Crimean War, and his son Alexander II inherited the whole bloody farce, including a back-and-forth sideshow in the Caucasus, across the border between Georgia and Turkey.

After several incursions in both directions and much fumbling on both sides, the Russians managed to besiege the city of Kars in northeastern Turkey, but the siege dragged on until the Ottomans finally surrendered on November 8, 1855 after Alexander was crowned. Russia's only success in an otherwise complete humiliation, and the peace treaty made them give it back.

  • That's about the only one I can think of. Alexander the Great had no children that I am aware of so that would leave some Egyptian Pharoah I guess. George HW Bush did not "invade the Middle East" I might add. The US was then...and remains today "guests of the King." Very good paying guests at the moment.... Nov 26, 2016 at 20:43
  • You might have found out since you wrote that, but Alexander did have a son, born just after Alexander's death and assassinated just before he was old enough to rule without a regent. Jun 22, 2019 at 0:11

I have an example of three generations of a European family invading the Middle East.

Fredrick I Barbarossa, Emperor of the Romans, lead a large army in the Third Crusade but drowned when crossing a river in what is now Turkey.

His son Henry VI, Emperor of the Romans, sent a force of crusaders to the Middle East.

Henry VI's son, Emperor of the Romans Frederick II, married the Queen of Jerusalem, and led a crusade & negotiated the return of Jerusalem, and became King of Jerusalem.

As Spencer's answer says, definitions of "invaded" and "Middle East" may vary, but I think there are later examples than Nicholas I and Alexander II.

As I remember, George III (d. 1820) was the King of Great Britain when Napoleon invaded the Middle East in the Egyptian expedition (1798-1801) and British forces invaded the Middle East to fight Napoleon.

Two of George III's sons were Kings of the UK from 1820 to 1837, but I don't remember any invasions of the Middle East in their reigns.

[07-20-2019] Pieter Geerkens commented that British forces fought in Algeria in 1824 in the reign of George IV, son of George III.

Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901, and the UK sent several expeditions to fight in various regions of the Middle East in her reign, such as during the Egyptian Revolt and during the Mahdist War in the Sudan.

Queen Victoria's son, King and Emperor Edward VII, reigned from 1901-1910, during part of the 20 year struggle against the "Mad Mullah" in Somalia, that included a battle on 2 January 1904 where 1,000 Dervish were killed by British forces under General Charles Egerton. So it could be said that Edward VII invaded the Middle East. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Abdullah_Hassan1

Edward VII's son George V was the king of the UK and Emperor of India when the UK & India invaded the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East in WWI.

George V's son George VI was the king and Emperor in WWII where the UK & India defended territories in the Middle East from Italian and German invaders, and also probably invaded a few countries in the Middle East such as Vichy French territories and Iran.

And George VI's daughter Elizabeth II was the Queen of the UK when the UK invaded Egypt during the Suez Canal crises in 1956 and was involved in the first and second Gulf Wars, etc.

Therefore, it seems probable that there are several overlapping examples of two generations of the British royal family reigning while Britain invaded the Middle East.


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