I am curious about why kingdom of Bavaria was assimilated by Prussia instead of Austria-Hungary

If I consider following facts in 1854

  • Bavaria is Catholic country (same as majority of Austria-Hungary), Prussia is Protestant
  • The royal family of Austria is connected with Bavaria nobles. Moreover in this year Franz Joseph marries Elizabeth of Bavaria
  • Bavaria is a strong ally of Austria that proved its loyalty in past decades. Moreover this alliance is oriented mainly against Prussia.
  • Bavaria is geographically and economically strongly connected with Austria-Hungary (Alps, Danube river,...)
  • Bavarians share similar cultural origins with Austrians and Western Bohemians

then something happened and in 1871 Bavaria joins Germany forever. Why?

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    ...and both speak Bavarian – knut Oct 30 '16 at 19:07
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    Austro-Prussian War of 1868 perhaps (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austro-Prussian_War), in which Austro-Hungary was crushed in seven weeks. (Blitzkrieg without tanks or aircraft, if one can believe it.) – Pieter Geerkens Oct 30 '16 at 22:03
  • This verges on speculation/counterfactual analysis which is out of scope. I think the question would be stronger if it included research into the reasons why Bavaria is German rather than Austrian. – Mark C. Wallace Oct 30 '16 at 22:25
  • there was an attempt to 'swap' the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria sometime pre 1800 – pugsville Oct 31 '16 at 0:58
  • @PieterGeerkens: In which Austria (it didn't become Austria-Hungary until 1867, a year after - and as a direct result of the Austrian defeat in - the Austro-Prussian War, which, BTW, happened in 1866, not 1868) and Bavaria (and Hannover, and Saxony, and Baden, and Württemburg, and Hesse-Darmstadt, etc., etc., etc.) were crushed in seven weeks. Most of the German states allied with Austria against Prussia; many were annexed outright by Prussia following the war, with the rest of the northern states being subsumed into the North German Confederation the following year; (1/2) – Sean May 10 '19 at 3:04

Bavaria joined Prussia after the Franco-Prussian War.

Prussia had emerged as the state that could defend "German" interests by leading the Germans in the defeat of France. Earlier, Prussia had beaten Austria in the Seven Weeks War of 1866.

Austria had to settle accounts with Hungary after the 1866 war (after having quashed that country's bid for independence in 1848). So in 1867, she elevated Hungary to a "dual" Austro-Hungarian monarchy, allowing Hungary to administer about half the combined empire. In so "partnering" with a non-Germanic country (as opposed to say, Bavaria, and letting the Hungarians go their way), Austria signaled that German affairs were of secondary importance to her. That signal was further reinforced when Austria declined to join the Germans (or France for that matter) in the Franco-Prussian War.

Under the circumstances, Prussia appeared to be the "coming" German power. With Austria no longer a viable alternative, it was a case of "let's jump on the bandwagon before it's too late."

  • I would argue that the defining momemt was the overwhelming success of Prussia in 1868 - which by coercing the formation of the Dual Monarchy resulted in Austro-Hungarian ambitions becoming focused on the Balkans instead of Germany. Anu good answer must account fr Austria' lack of interest in German affairs during the 1870 war bwteen Prussia (and its allies) against France. – Pieter Geerkens Oct 30 '16 at 22:43
  • @Pieter Geerkens: OK, adopted your excellent suggestion about the Dual Monarchy. – Tom Au Oct 31 '16 at 0:20

"Mad King Ludwig" was a problem too. He looted the very wealthy Bavarian Treasury for truly ridiculous "security" projects. This behavior was very unpopular and ultimately was not tolerated by Vox Populi. Bavaria feared (I think rightly) that they were being seen as the 19th Century wore on much as Northern Italy had been seen by Napoleon in the 1790's...."the people who would pay for Europe's next Wars." The Prussians were always very tight with budgeting public money...although interestingly never afraid to spend that money either unlike the "drunken Austrians." And of course "German money" did mean something.... unlike the French or Italian stuff. Plus only the Prussians enjoyed oompah - oompah music....

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    What does "oompah-oompah music" have to do with anything? And the rest is just speculation. – Tom Au Oct 31 '16 at 0:25
  • You've never been to Bavaria apparently.... – Doctor Zhivago Oct 31 '16 at 1:58
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    Sorry, downvote. – Felix Goldberg Oct 31 '16 at 7:04

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