There were no businesses in the Spanish presidio at Monterey. Trade goods from the missions and passing ships came through, but there wasn't much to buy. Outside the fort, what was the first fixed-location retail business to start up in Monterey?

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    What exactly is your question: "Who was the first retailer in Monterey, California?" or "Where was the first retailer business to start up in Monterey?" What do you mean by "fort"? What fort? Where was it? And why are the topics colonial-america and spanish-empire relevant to this question? – Sakib Arifin Dec 2 '16 at 20:11
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    @MohammadSakibArifin I assume the retail business was run by an individual. The fort was the Monterey Presidio, a Spanish Empire military colony founded in 1770. – Aaron Brick Dec 2 '16 at 20:53
  • I would be interested in knowing why a couple of people downvoted this question; can it be improved? – Aaron Brick Aug 30 '17 at 17:53

Early retail in Monterey was either in the presidial paymaster's store, described in Guest's "Municipal Government in Spanish California", or a visiting ship's trading room, described in Graebner's "Empire on the Pacific".

The first independent Monterey trading house was perhaps that of McCulloch, Hartnell, & Company. It set up in Monterey in 1822, 5/8 owned by John Begg & Company of Lima, according to "Cattle Colonialism" by Fischer. The enterprise obtained a warehouse and "a spacious adobe to be used as a tienda" in 1823, according to "The Lives of William Hartnell" by Dakin. Business required Hartnell to travel to missions and other ports, but the company had a fixed headquarters in Monterey.

McCulloch soon split and Hartnell went out of business. Thomas Larkin opened his store in 1834.

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