I'm looking at census returns for the village of Eversholt, Bedfordshire, in the Victorian period. Farming was the biggest employer. This is post-enclosure, 1851 to 1901. Enclosure happened in 1806.
Under "Occupation", farmers (as opposed to farm labourers) are always listed as
Farmer... of 132 acres employing 3 men 2 boys. They were clearly understood to have quite a status, and sometimes the households included a servant.
Another occupation listed is
Grazier. A grazier raises animals, as opposed to crops. Graziers could be well off: one of the quotations from the OED for Grazier is
1839 Dickens Nicholas Nickleby xxxv. 338 Broad-brimmed white hat, such as a wealthy grazier might wear.
Yet the census return never gives an acreage for a grazier, nor suggests they are employers, and I have yet to find a servant in a grazier's household.
I'm trying to understand what the relative social status of a "grazier" was.
- Could someone listed as a "Farmer" raise both animals and crops?
- Does "Farmer" in the census always imply direct control and management of the land, as opposed to someone who sublets a field for his sheep?
- Was "Grazier" just a way of saying "Farm Labourer who tends animals"?
- Would someone running an entire farm which raised only livestock be listed as a "Farmer", not "Grazier"? Was this just a rule of completing the census return?