It varied from country to country. Deep inside the Soviet Union they could not watch Western TV and the only access was shortwave broadcasts. You could easily listen short-wave broadcasts in European languages. There were special broadcasts in Russian (Voice of America, Free Europe, German wave, BBC and few others). Very many people actually listened these broadcasts. Short wave radios
Since 1970s these broadcasts were jammed but the jamming was never really effective (though it was a nuisance for the listeners). Listening these broadcasts was not a crime in the 1970s but active spreading the information could be punished.
The situation closer to Western boundaries of the block was different: one could catch the TV broadcasts in many places (in Poland, for example German TV was possible to receive in many places), sometimes one had to use special antennas.
In the Western Ukraine, one could watch Polish TV in some places
(and Polish TV was "Western" from the point of view of the Soviets:
the censorship was very much weaker in Poland than in Soviet Union).
For this people built special antennas. These antennas were chased and removed by the authorities, but there was no punishment (at least I have never heard of someone punished for this). The antennas were removed on pretext that they spoil the look of the buildings. So people tried to hide them in the attics.
Reception in Lviv was poor and only available on hilltops. People would visit
each other for an evening with Polish TV. Many people in Lviv knew enough of Polish language to watch TV and read newspapers.