When was the first time that concrete was used in Indian Subcontinent?

  • 2
    Requests for book recommendations are out of scope - see discussion on meta. I'm going to edit that out of the question to avoid closure.
    – MCW
    Jul 3, 2017 at 13:16

1 Answer 1


The word "concrete" in English is a bit troublesome. The word refers to something called "portland cement" that was invented in the modern era in Portland.

I'm aware that the following sources don't directly address the Indian subcontinent; I'm providing them to assist your preliminary research. A simple google search on concrete and India returns multiple results.

  • Wikipedia (you should always check wikipedia before asking on H:SE)

    Prehistory[edit] Perhaps the earliest known occurrence of cement was twelve million years ago. A deposit of cement was formed after an occurrence of oil shale located adjacent to a bed of limestone burned due to natural causes. These ancient deposits were investigated in the 1960s and 1970s.5 On a human timescale, small usages of concrete go back for thousands of years. Concrete-like materials were used since 6500 BC by the Nabataea traders or Bedouins who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan. They discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC. They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, and underground waterproof cisterns. The cisterns were kept secret and were one of the reasons the Nabataea were able to thrive in the desert.[6] Some of these structures survive to this day.[6]

The references in the wikipedia article may provide the book references you sought.

  • 4
    Actually, "concrete" in modern usage refers to more than the stuff made with Portland cement. There's plenty written about Roman concrete, for instance, and more roads &c probably use asphalt concrete (or "blacktop" in common US usage) than portland cement concrete. Rome had trade & cultural contact with India, so it's not impossible that Roman concrete was used there.
    – jamesqf
    Jul 3, 2017 at 18:13

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