This is anecdotal, and I have no idea how widespread it was, but there were several German and Austrian Jewish academics who fled to Turkey in the 1930's (Or at any rate, found themselves in Turkey then.) Among them Richard von Mieses, Hilde Geiringer (mathematicians), Hans Güterbock (Hittitologist), Elizabeth Ettinghausen (Islamic & Byzantine art).
Turkey, at the time, was eager to import Western culture and many of the particular refugees I name took jobs in Turkish universities, where they must have enjoyed an approximation to civilized life, a life so absent then in their native countries.
Although this topic is of only peripheral interest to me I did spend a few minutes poking around. Wikipedia, of course, has its say, with references. The upbeat how-turkey-saved-jewish-lives fills in detail that probably covers the instances I mentioned to above. The review of a book Turkey, the Jews and the Holocaust by Corry Guttstadt points to an existing body of scholarship on the issue of Turkey and the Holocaust. The matter is far more complex and contentious than indicated in the previous web site.