When the Jews left England in 1290 by edict of Edward 1, who took over the role of Jews? My understanding is that the primary economic function was loaning money against future sales of farm produce -- liquidity before the grain was actually grown or sold. Was this their role and if so, who moved into this role given religious laws against "usury"? Also, were Jews supported by force of law in collecting debts?
The 1290 Expulsion of the Jews involved a fairly small number of people, about 2,000. only some of which were moneylenders.
Their places were easily taken up by the Lombards, whose laws allowed moneylending. By the mid 14th century, there were complaints or at least suspicions that some of the "Lombards" were actually returned Jews.