This answer about usage of horses contains a brief description of the situation of New York. Are there examples where city cleaning was done by firms or was the communal government responsible for city cleaning in all metropolitan cities?

Was there special taxation for horse owners to finance city cleaning?

  • Which part of the world you want to know about? US of A?
    – Bookeater
    Commented Sep 3, 2017 at 9:33
  • Every bigger city is interesting. I begin the research about that right now. German wikipedia has some information about city cleaning in Hamburg. There was city cleaning a business for private companies until 1886. Maybe I can find information why it becomes after that a comunal responsibility.
    – giftnuss
    Commented Sep 3, 2017 at 11:58
  • 2
    Don't forget the great stink!
    – Bookeater
    Commented Sep 3, 2017 at 13:00
  • columbia.edu/~ma820/privatization.nlf.html
    – Bookeater
    Commented Sep 3, 2017 at 13:43


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