-7

Average total aid between the United States and Israel over years given inclusively.

  • $ 60 million dollars annually 1949-1958

  • $ 73.4 million dollars annually 1957-1966

  • $ 1 billion dollars annually 1968-1977

  • $ 2.8 billion dollars annually 1978-1988

Aid numbers used - U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel: Total Aid(1949-Present)

Using The USS Liberty attack, June 8th, 1967 as a fulcrum or pivot what historical events had the most influence on relatively cool relations prior to 1967, and exponentially improving relations after 1967?

closed as off-topic by Pieter Geerkens, Mark C. Wallace, Alex, tohuwawohu, Tom Au Nov 2 '17 at 8:36

  • This question does not appear to be about history within the scope defined in the help center.
If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

  • 3
    Declassified report on Israeli court of enquiry – sempaiscuba Nov 1 '17 at 18:53
  • 2
    The NSA have declassified hundreds of documents relating to the USS Liberty. So far, to the best of my knowledge, nothing has been released that seriously conflicts with the official story. – sempaiscuba Nov 1 '17 at 18:59
  • 3
    The quotes you linked to (and have now added to the question) have been collected by a site set up as a "memorial" to the USS Liberty and, apparently, dedicated to proving the existence of a cover-up. Unsurprisingly, they have selected quotes that support their case. Where they do not (the quotes you haven't added to your question), the choice of words (e.g. "Shamelessly, in that same interview") suggests more than a little bias. – sempaiscuba Nov 1 '17 at 20:04
  • 4
    I'm voting to close this question as off-topic because it belongs on Skeptics instead of History. – Pieter Geerkens Nov 1 '17 at 20:23
  • 1
    @PieterGeerkens - It was the considered opinion of the available Skeptics mods that this isn't currently in the form of a question that skeptics would accept either. If the poster wants to try to write a version that they will accept, they are encouraged to go over there and do it. – T.E.D. Nov 2 '17 at 15:50
4

NOTE:

This answer referred to the original question as asked on 1 November 2017:

Why was the USS Liberty Attacked?

Why did the Israeli Defense Force attack the USS Liberty on June 8, 1967 killing 32 American Sailors, wounding 171, and doing so much damage to the ship that it ultimately had to be scrapped.

The attack itself was conducted first by Airplanes, one of which reportedly identified the ship to be American. Then by patrol boat at close quarters. And finally, by helicopter.

Please support your answers and take into account the following US and Israeli government statements on the attacks. http://www.gtr5.com/quotes.htm



Answer

As stated on the Wikipedia page about the incident, both the Israeli and U.S. governments conducted inquiries and issued reports that concluded the attack was a mistake due to Israeli confusion about the ship's identity.

Since then, the NSA have released hundreds of declassified documents, including a report on the outcome of the Israeli Court of Enquiry in 1967.


A number of people, including surviving members of the crew of the USS Liberty, have certainly claimed that the real reason for the attack has been covered up by both governments. There have also been a number of books published on the subject, including Remember the Liberty!: Almost Sunk by Treason on the High Seas, by Ernest Gallo, Ronald Kukal, Phillip Nelson, Phillip Tourney, & Raymond McGovern and The Liberty Incident by Judge A. Jay Cristol.

However, as far as I am aware, to date nothing in the declassified records casts any serious doubt on the official story that the attack was a mistake, resulting from poor communication between units of the IDF and the mis-identification of the vessel.


In 2001, former Navy Chief Petty Officer Marvin Nowicki, who was the chief Hebrew-language analyst aboard a U.S. Navy EC-121 spy plane that was intercepting Israeli aircraft communications during the attack on the USS Liberty, stated in a letter to the Wall Street Journal that though he heard and recorded Israeli pilots’ and captains’ references to the U.S. flag flying on the deck of the Liberty, these remarks were made only after the attack was underway, and not before.

He stated that it was only when aircraft and motor torpedo boat operators moved closer to the Liberty that they were able to recognise, and therefore reference, the American flag.

Interestingly, Nowicki's letter sparked an investigation by the NSA who were concerned that the letter revealed classified details relating to US intelligence gathering capabilities. The existence of the NSA investigation was one of the details revealed among the classified documents leaked by Edward Snowden.

  • By a number of people you mean the CIA director, NSA director, and Secretary of State along with their deputies at the time of the attack? – JMS Nov 1 '17 at 20:41
  • Actually I've not heard any "reasons" behind the attack coming from the survivors. They do seem to agree, along with the sited US government officials that the Israeli 50 year old explanation doesn't make much sense. I did see a book review in Haaretz from one survivor which blamed President Johnson in some failed strategy to get the US involved in the then active war. Not sure that made any sense. – JMS Nov 2 '17 at 14:29
  • @MattSebastian This is a site about history. Like I said, there is nothing in the records available in the public domain that contradicts the official version. People may have opinions about cover-ups and conspiracy theories, but that is not history - no matter what positions those people held in the past. None of those officials has provided any evidence to support the idea that a cover-up existed. From an historical perspective, the evidence says it was a screw up, and until new evidence appears that will be the judgement of history. – sempaiscuba Nov 2 '17 at 14:48
  • @MattSebastian Also, three of the 4 authors of "Remember the Liberty ...", which alleges LBJ colluded in the sinking, were survivors of the attack on the USS Liberty. – sempaiscuba Nov 2 '17 at 14:55
  • of the six U.S. investigations of the Liberty. None absolved Israel of the attack. The Navy's investigation focused entirely on US reaction. The Joint Chief's investigation focused on the communications system failures involved with the Attack. The Senate and House testimony's were hearings with US Defense officials, not investigations. The NSA history report provides no conclusions. – JMS Jan 27 '18 at 21:33

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.